Wednesday, November 20, 2013



Dogmatism in the Economy
The deYelopment of the economy in Communism is rюt the
basis for, but а reflection of, the developmeпt of the тegime
itself fi·om а revolutionaтy dictatorship to а reactionaгy despotism.
This development, tЪrough struggles and disputes,
demonstrates hmv the interference of government in tl1e econorny,
necessary at fiгst, has gradually turned iнto а vital, personal
interest on tће part of tће ruling buтeaucтats. Iпitially, tће
state seizes all meaпs of productioп in order to contтol all
iпvestments for rapid industrialization. Ultimately, fшtћer econornic
development has come to Ье guided rnaiпly in the
interests of tЪе ruling class.
Other types of mvпers do not act in an essentially different
mанне1·; they are aћvays motiYated Ьу sorne sort of personal
interest. Ho>vever, the tћiпg tltat distinguishes t.he Пе\V class
frorn otћer types of o>vпers is that it has in its hands, m01·e or
less, all the пational resources, and tћat it is deYeloping its econornic
po>ver in а deliЬerat.e and organized manner. А deliЬerate
system of unification is also used Ьу otl1er classes, sucћ as political
and economic orgaпizations. Because tћere are а number of
O\VIlers and many forms of property, all in mutual conflict,
spoпtaneity and cornpetition have been preserved in all есоп-

omies preceding the Corшnunist one, at least under norma1
or peaceful coпditions.
Еvеп the Communist есопоmу has not succeeded in repressiпg
spontaneity, but iп coпtтast to all others, it. constantly
insists that spontaneity should Ье achieved. .
This practice has its theoretic justificatioп. The Commuшst
!eaders really believe that they kno'.V ecoпomic la>vs and that
they can administer production witll scieпtific accuracy. The
truth is that the опlу thing they know ho>v to do is to sei~e
t:oпtrol of the economy. Their aЬility to do this, just like the1r
victory iп the revolution, has created the illusioп iп their miнds
Jhat they succeeded because of their exceptional scientific
Coпvinced of the accuracy of their theories, they administer
the economy largely according to these theories. It is а standard
joke that the Commuпists first equate ан ecoпomic measure
>vith а Marxist. idea апd theп pr·oceed t.o carry out the measure.
In Yugoslavia, it has Ьеен officially declar·ed that plaппing is
coпducted according to Marx; but Marx >vas пeither а planпer
поr а plaпning expert. Iп practice, nothing is done accordiпg
to Marx. Ho>vever, the claim that plaпning is conducted according
to Marx satisfies people's coнscieпces and is used to
justify tуrаппу and economic domiпation for "ideal" aims апd
according to "scieпtific" discoveries.
Dogmatism iп tће есопоmу is an iпseparaЬle part of tће Commuпist
system. Ho>vever, tlre foтciпg of the есопоmу into dogmaric
rc1.0lds is поt tlre outstanding featш·e of tће Commпнist
economic s~.stem. In tbls есопоmу tће leader-s ar·e master·s iп
"adapting" theo:v; tћеу depart from theщy >vlreп it is to tћeir
intel"est to ао 5{).
Iн additioн to being motivated Ьу tће blstOI·ical нееd for
тapid iпdustrializatioн, the Commuнist bureaпcracy has been
compelled to estaЬlisћ а type of ecoнomic system desigнed to
iнsure tЪе perpetuation of its o;vn po>ver. Allegedly for tће
sake of а classless society and for the aЬe.1ition of exploitation,
it ћаs created а closed economic system, >vith forms of property
which facilitate tЪе party's domiпatioн апd its moпopoly. At
first, tће Commппists ћаd t.o turп to this ''collectivistic" foтm
for objective reasons. N o-vv they colltinпe to streпgtћeп tћis
form->vitћoпt consideriпg >vћetћer ог not it. is iн the interest
of the natioпal economy and of fпгtћеr iпdustrializatioп-for
tћeir Ov\'11 sake, for an exclнsive Commuпist class aim. They
first admiпistered апd controlled tће eпtire economy for socalled
ideal goals; 1ater tlrey did it for tће pпrpose of maiнtaiнing
tћeir absolпte сопtгоl and dominatioн. Тћаt is the теаi
reasoп for sucћ far-reacl1iпg апd inflexiЬle political measures
iп tће Commпnist есоноmу.
Iп an iнtervie>v iн 1956, Tito admitted tћat. there аге "socialist
elements" in \Vesterн economies, Ьпt tћat they are поt
"deliЬerately" introdпced iпto tће ecoнomies as sпсћ. Tћis
expгesses tће \vћole Communist idea: онlу Ьесапsе "socia1ism"
is estaЬlislred "deliЬerately"-by organized compпlsioн-iп tће
ecoнomics of tћeir coнпtr-ies must tће Communists preserve
the despotic metћod of governiнg and tћeir o-.;vn moпopoly of
Tћis аш·iЬпtiоп of great апd еvеп decisiYe sigнificaпce to
"deliЬerateness" in tће deYelopment of tће economy апd society
reYeals tће compпlsщy and selfislr clraгacter of Commппist
economic policy. Otћeпvise, -.;vћу 1voнld sucћ an insistence on
deliЬeтateness Ье necessary?
Тће stroпg oppositioп of Commнnists to all foтms of Oi\'1lersћip
except tlюse ivlrich tћеу consider to Ье socialist iпdicates,
above all, theiг uncontrollable desiтes to ааiп and maiпtaiн u
pmveг. Тћеу abandoned ог alteгed tћis тadical attitнde, holveYer,
1vlreн it >vas agaiпst tћеiг iпterest to ћold to it; tlшs tћеу
tгeated tћеiт o-vvп tћeory badly. Iп YugoslaYia, for instaпce,
tћеу fiгst cтeated and tћen dissolYed tће kolklюzes iп tће name
of "error-fгee :Мarxism" and "socialism." Today tћеу ar·e pursпing
а tћir-d, and coпfпsed, middle-of-tlre-гoad liпe in tlle sаше
matter. Тћеr·е are similar exarnples iп all Cornrnuпist сош1-

tтies. However, the abolition of all forшs of private ownership
except their own is their ur1ehaпging purpose.
Every political systeш gives expression to econoшic forces
апd atteшpts to adшiпister tћеш. The Coшnшпists саппоt attaiп
coшplete coпtrol over productioп, but they have succeeded
iп controlliпcт it to sucћ ап exteпt tћat they coпtinuously subordinate
it t; tћeir ideological апd political goals. Iп tћis way,
Coшшunisш differs froш every otћer political systeш.
The Coшшuпists interpret tће special role of those wћо
produce in tenns of their total O\vпership апd, even шоrе iшportaпt,
often in terшs of the overriding role of ideology iп
tће есоnошу.
Iшшediately after tће revolution, П·ееdош of ernployшeпt
\Vas curtailed in the U.S.S.R. Впt tће need of the r·egiшe for
rapid industrialization did not br·ing about coшplete curtailшeпt
of such freedoш. This took place only after the victory of
the indпstrial revolпtion and after tће ne\V class had been
created. In 1940 а la\V \Vas passed forЪidding П·ееdош of eшployшent
апd punishiпg people for quitting their jobs. Iп this
period апd аћеr \Vorld War П, а forш of slave labor developed,
naшely, tће labor сашрs. Moreover, the bordeгliпe between
1vork in the labor сашрs апd woтk in factories was alшost coшpletely
Labor сашрs апd varioпs kinds of "voluntary" \VOI"k activities
are only tће 1vorst and шost ехtтеше forшs of coшpпlsOI'y labor.
Tbls сан Ье of а teшporary character iп other systeшs Ьпt
пnder Сошшпnisш coшpulsory lаЬот has reшaiпed а pennaпeпt
feature. Althoпgh coшpпlsory labor did not take the sаше fonп
iп otћer Coшшпnist couпtries nor develop there t.o the ext.ent
that it has in the U .S.S.R., rюпе of tl1ese coпntries ћаs coшpletely
free eшployшerlt.

Coшpпlsory labor in the Сошшппist systeш is the resпlt of
шonopoly of owпersћip over all, or alшost all, пational property.
The vvoгker finds hiшself iп the position of llaviпg rюt orlly to
sell his lаЬог; ће шust sell it ппdеr conditioпs 1vhich are Ьеуопd
ћis control, siпce he is uпаЬlе t.o seek another, better eшployer.
There is only опе eшployer, the state. The \Vorker ћаs no choice
Ьпt to accept tће eшployer's terшs. Тће \Vorst and шost ћat"Шful
eleшent in early capitalisш ћош the 1vorker's standpoint-the
lаЬш шarket-ћas Ьееп replaced Ьу the шonopoly over labor
of the o1mer'Ship of the пеw class. This has поt шаdе tће \Vorker
ану freer.
Iп the Coшшпnist systeш the 1vorker is поt like tће ancieпt
type of slave, поt еvеп 1vheп he is iп coшpulsoтy labor· сашрs:
tl1e aпcient slave 1vas tтeated both theoretically апd practically
as ап object. Еvеп tl1e gr·eatest шiпd of aпtiquity, Aristotle,
believed tlыt реорЈе 1ver·e Ьош either frеешеп от slaves. Thoпgh
he believed iп ћumапе tr·eatшent of slaves апd advocated the
r·eforш of tће slavery systeш, he still regarded slaves as tools of
production. Iп tће moderп systeш of techпology, it. is поt possiЬle
to deal tћis >vay 1vith а \vorker, Ьесапsе опlу а liter-ate апd
iпteтested •vo1·ker сан do the sort of 1vork required. Coшpulsory
labor iп tће Coшшuпist systeш is quite differ·eпt ћош slavery
in aпtiqпity ш in history. It is the resпlt of ош1етsћiр and
political relationships, not, or опlу to а sligћt exteпt, tће result
of tће tecћnological level of pгoduction.
Siпce шоdе1Ћ tecћrюlogy requir·es а "'or·ker· \Vlю can dispose
of а coпsideгaЬle ашошн of ћееdош, it is iп lateпt conflict
witћ coшpпlsory for"Шs of labor, or ;vith the шопороlу of o>vneгship
апd tће political totalitariaпisш of Cornшuпisш. Uпder
Cornrnuпisш tће ;vorker is techпically free, but ћis possiЬilities
to use ћis fгееdош ате extrernely lirnited. The fOI"Шal lirnitation
of ћееdош is not ап iпћеrепt cћaгact.eгistic of Cornшuпisrn,
Ьпt it is а pl1enoшeпon ;vhich occurs uпdег Cornшuпisrn.
It is especially appareпt 1vith гegard to 'voгk апd tће labor
force itself.

Labor cannot Ье fгее in а society 1vhere all material goods are
пюnopolized Ьу one gтoup. The labor fогсе is indiтectly the
рr·орену of that gтoup, altlюugh not completely so, since the
workeт is an indiYidual hпman being 1vho himself пses up ратt

vVhen tlle U.S.S.R. became the first country to embark upon
natioпal planning, its leaders, who 'vere Marxists, coпnected
tbls рlаппiпо- 'vitћ Marxism. The truth is tbls: altlюugh
ь . .
Marx's teacblпo-s "\vете the idealistic basis of tlle revolutюп ш
Russia, bls teacblngs also became the cover for later measш·es
taken Ьу the Soviet leaders.
All of tlle blstorical and specific reasons for Soviet planпing
>vere attriЬuted to correspondiпg tћeories. Marx's theory was
the closest апd most acceptaЬle because of tће social basis and
the past of the Commuпist movemeпt.
Altlюuo-h Iеапiпо- heavily on :Маrх in tће begiпniпg, Соm-
ь ь
muпist plaпning ћаs а mоте profound idealistic and mateтial
background. How can ан есопоmу Ье administeтed other thaп
as а planned есопоmу vvћеп it ћаs or is going to ћаvе а sing1e
o>mer? Ho'v coнld sнсћ tl·emeпdoнs investments Ье made for
tће pнrpose of iпdustrializing if tћеу >vere not plaпned?
Sometblno- mнst Ье пeeded Ьеfоте it сап become ап ideal. So
it is >vitћ Commнnist plaпniпg. It is dedicated t.o tће developmeпt
of tlюse brancћes of tће economy >vћiсћ >vill insнre tће
streпo-tћenino- of tl1e reo-ime. Tћis is tће g-eneral rule, altћoнg-h о о о ....... .._,
in every Commнnist coнntry, especially tllose "\vЪicl1 become
indepeпdent of Moscovv, tller·e are exceptioпs to tћis rнle.
Of coнrse, the developmeпt of the national есопоmу as а
'vЬole is important for tЬе stieпgtћening of tће regime, for it
is impossiЬle permaneпtly to sepaгate progress in one brancћ
of prodнction from anotЪer. Plarшing empћasis iп every Commнnist
system is alvvays directed tmvard brancћes of tће
ecorюmy tћat ar·e considered to Ье of decisive importance in
maiпtaiпing tl1e political staЬility of tlle regime. Тћеsе braпches
ar·e ones tћat enЬance tће role, po,ver, and privileges of tће
Ьнrеансrасу. Тћеу also are tће опеs tћat strengtlten tће regime
in its relatioпs to otћer coнпtries and make it possiЬle for tће
regime to iпdustr-ialize t.o а greater degree. Up to now, tћеу
ћаvе Ьеен Ьrапсћеs of ћеаvу and wаг industries. Tћis does поt
шеап tћat tће situation cannot. cћange iп iпdividнal couпtries.
Recently atomic eпergy, especially in tће U.S.S.R., ћаs begun
to take first place in tће plan; I sћoнld say tllat tЪis is llappeniпg
because of military, foreign and political considerations
ratћer tћan for any otller.
Ever]'tlling is subordinated to tћese aims. Coпsequeщly,
mапу Ьrансћеs of tће есопошу are laggiпg and 'vorking
inefficieпtly; dispгoportioпs апd diffiшlties are inevitaЬle; апd
excessive pr·odнctioп costs апd сlнопiс iпflatioп are rampant.
Accordiпg to Andre Pћilipe (iп tће New Leader, October 1,
1956), investments iп ћеаvу iпdнstry iп tЪе U.S.S.R. iпcreased
from tће 53.3 per сепt of total iпvestmeпts iп 1954 to 60 per
cent of total iпvestmeпts in 1955. т,venty-oпe per cent of tlle
пеt пatioпal iпcome is beiпg invested in indнstr]', witћ а coпceпtratioп
on ћеаvу industry, аltћонgћ lleavy indнstгy опlу
coпtriЬнted 7.4 per сепt to tlle increase iп iпcome per capita,
6.4 per сепt of vvblch 'vas dне to iпcreased prodнctioн.
It is uпderstaпdaЬle >vhy, under· sнcll conditions, the staпdard
of liviпg is tће last coпce!'Il of tl1e ne'v o>mers, еvеп thoнgћ,
as Marx ћimself maiпtaiпs, шен are the most importaпt factor
iп prodнction. Accoгding to Ed"rard Cranksћa>v, vvllo is close
to tће Britisћ Laboнr Рагtу, а despeгate battle for· survival must.
Ье foнght iп tће U.S.S.R. Ьу those >vћо еаш less tћап 600 rнЬles
moпtbly. Наrту Schvvartz, the New York Times expert on the
Soviet Uпion, llas estimated tllat appгoximately eight million
'vorkers earn less than 300 тнЬiеs monthly, and tlle Tribune,
repгesenting tlle point of vievv of tl1e Bгitisll Laboнr Par·ty's left
vving, adds tlle comment that tllis, and поt tlle eqнality of sexes,
is tlle r·eason for the large nнmbe!' of women employed at lleavy
labor. Тће recent 30-per-ceпt vvage incтease in tlle U.S.S.R. llas
applied to tllese lo'N->vage categoi"ies.
Tbls is the >vay it is iп the U.S.S.R. It is not. шнсћ different
in other Comшнnist coнntr-ies, not. even in coнпtr-ies like
Czeclloslovakia vvblch are tecllnologically very advanced. Once
an exporter of agricultнral piOdнcts, Yнgoslavia no>v impщts
tЪem. Accoiding to official statistics, tlle standard of living of
of his labor. Speaking in tће abstr-act, tће lаЬот fотсе, taken as
а 1vhole, is а factor in total social pтoduction. Тће ne;v тuling
class 1vitЪ it.s material and political monopoly пses this factor
almost to the same extent tћat it does оtћег national goods and
elements of production and treats it tће same \\'ау, diнegarding
tће lшman factor.
Dealing 1vit.h labor as а factor in pтoduction, 1vorking conditions
in yarioпs enter·pгises, or tће connection bet;veen 1vages
and profits, are of no concer11 to tће Ьuтеаuсгасу. \\Тages and
\\'Oгking conditions are deter·mined in accordance 1vitЪ an abstract
concept of labor, or in accordance 1vith indiYidual qualifications,
1vith little ог no regaгd for tће actual гesults of
productioп iп the respectiYe eпterpгises or br-ancl1es of indпstry.
This is only а geneгal rule; tl1ere ar·e exceptioпs, depeпcliпg оп
coпditions and requirements. But the system leads iпeYitaЬly
to lack of interest оп tће ратt of tl1e actual pгoduceis, i.e., tће
1vorkers. It also leads to lo;v quality of output, а decline in теаl
productiYity апd teclшological pтogr·ess, апd deter-ioгatioп of
plaпt. The Commuпists ar·e coпstaпtly strugg1iпg fш gтeater
pгoductiYity on tће part of tће iпdiYidual 1vorkers, payiпg little
or по atteпtioп to tће pтoductiYity of tће labor force as а ;vћole.
In sucћ а system, efforts to stimulate tће wor·ker are ineYitaЬle
and fтequent. The bшeaucracy offer·s all kinds of a1vards and
allo1vances to coппteract lack of iпterest. But. as loпg as tlle
Comnшпists do not сћапgе the system itself, as long as they
retaiп tЪeir monopoly of all о1vпепћiр and all goyerпmeпt, tћеу
canrюt stimulate tће iпdiYidual woтker for loпg, much less
stimulate the labor fотсе as а ;vlюle.
Elabor·ate attempts to giYe tће \Vorkers а sћare iп the profits
have Ьееп made iп Yugoslavia and are now beiпg contemplated
in tЪе East Europeaп countries. These quickly result in tће
retention of "excess profits" in the haпds of the bureaucracy
\vlю justify this actioп Ьу saying that they ar·e clleckiпg inflation
and iпvesting tће money \visely. All that remaiпs for the worker
are small, nomiпal sums and the "right" t.o suggest ho\v they
sћould Ье iпvested thгough the рагtу апd trade unioп or·ganization-
tl1Тoпgћ the bureauпacy. v\Тitћout the right to stгike
and to decide оп ;vlю o;vпs \vhat, the \Vотkеп have not had
шuсћ сћаnсе to obtaiп а real sћаге of tће profits. It ћаs become
clear tћat all tl1ese тights are mutпally inteпvoven with various
forms of political freedom. They caпnot Ье attained iп isolation
from each other.
In sucћ а system, free trade unioп oгganizations are impossiЬle,
апd stгikes can happen very rarely, sucћ as the explosions
of \Voтker dissatisfaction in East Gerrnaпy in 1954 апd in
Роzпап in 1956.
Тће Comrnunists explaiп the eпforced absence of strikes Ьу
sayiпg tћat tће ";vorking class" is iп po>ver and mvпs tће
шеапs of prodнctioп tћroпgh its state, so that if it did strike,
it \voпld Ье str·ikiпg against itself. Tћis паУvе explanatioп is
based on tће fact tћat iп tће Comшuпist system the o;vпer
of pгoperty is not а pr'ivate individual, but, as 1ve kno\v,
caшouftaged Ьу tће fact tlыt ће is collective and forrnally
tшideп tifiaЬle.
Above all, stгikes uпder tће Commuпist system are impossiЬle
Ьесапsе there is only оне mmeг \Vllo is iп cћar·ge of all
goods апd of tl1e епtiте labor forтe. It ;voнld Ье ћard to take
апу effective action against ћiш ;vitlюut tl1e paгticipation of
all tЬе ;vorkeп. А stгike of опе or шше enterprises-sнpposing
tћat sпcl1 а tћiпg could ћарреп at all нпdеr а total dictatoiSћip
-canпot тeally tlнeat.eп tlыt o;vneг. His рторегtу does not
consist of tћose iпdividпal eпteтprises Ьнt of tће prodнctioп
macћine as а \vlюle. The о;vпет is not harmed Ьу losses in
indiYidнal enterpгises, Ьесапsе the producers, or society as а
\vћole, must rnake нр fот such losses. Because of this, strikes

are шше of а political than an econoшic рrоЬlеш for the
vVhile inclividua1 st.rikes are alшost iшpossiЬle, and hopeless
as far as potential тesults are concerned, there are no
ргореr political conditions for general strikes and they can
occur only iп exceptional situations. Wheнever iнdividual
strikes have taken place, they have usually cl1anged iнto gенетаl
strikes анd have taken on а distinctly political chaтacter. Iн
addition, Coшшuнist regiшes constantly divide анd disrupt
the 1voтkiнg class Ьу шeans of paid fuнctionar-ies, тaised froш
its raнks, 1vho "educate" it, "uplift it ideologically," анd direct
it in its daily life.
Trade unioп organizations and other professioнal OI·ganizations,
because of theiт purpose апd functioн, сан онlу Ье
the appendages of а single o1vner and poteнtate-the political
oligarchy. Thus, tћeir "шain" ршроsе is tће јоЬ of "buildiпg
socialisш" or increasiнg production. TЪeir otћer fuнctions аге
to spread illusions and ап acquiescent шооd ашонg tће
1vorkers. Тћеsе orgaнizations ћаvе played only оне iшportant
r·ole-the lifting of the cultшal level of the \Vor·king classes.
"\Vorkers' oтgaнizations uпder· tће Coшшuпist. systeш ате
really "сошрапу" от "yello1v" oгgaпizations of а special kiпd.
ТЬе expr·essioп "of а special kiпd" is used Ьеге because tЬе
ешрlоует is at tЬе sаше tiшe tће goveтпшent and tће exponent
of tЬе predoшinant ideology. In other systeшs tlюse t1vo factors
are generally separ·ate froш еасЬ otЬer, so tЬat tЬе 1voгkers,
even tlюugЬ uпаЬlе to rely он either one of tЬеш, are at least
аЬlе to take advantage of tЬе differences and conflicts betiveen
It is not accideпtal tћat tће working class is the шain concenl
of the regiшe; not for idealistic or ћuшaнitarian reasons,
but siшply because tЬis is tће class оп 1vЬiсЬ production depends
and on ivЬich tЬе r·ise and tће very existence of tЬе new
class depends.
In spite of tЬе fact tћat. tЪere is по free ешрlоушепt or free
ivoтkers' orgaпizatioпs, tћere is а liшit. to exploitatioп, even
iп tЬе Coшшuпist systeш. ТЬе searcћ for tЬis liшit would
require а dеерег апd ill01·e concгete analysis. W е will coпcern
ourselves ћеге опlу 1vitЬ its шost iшportant aspects.
Iп additioп to political liшits-fear of dissatisfaction aшonD"
the ivorkers and otl1er coпsideratioпs wћich are subject. to
сЬапgе-thеге are also coпstant liшits to exploitatioп: the fотшs
апd degrees of exploitation 1vЬich Ьесоше too costly for the
systeш шust sоопег or· later Ье discoпtiпued.
TЬus, Ьу tће decree of April 25, 1956, iп tЪе U.S.S.R., tће
сопdешпаtiоп of 1vorkers for tardiпess or for quitting t.heir
jobs ivas caпceled. Also а great шаnу \VOI"kers 1vere released
froш lаЬог сашрs; these ivere cases in ivhich it ivas iшpossiЬle
to distingнish betiveeп political prisoпers апd those ivЬош tће
геgiше Ьаd tlнoivп iпto labor сашрs because it needed а labor
fOI'ce. This decree did поt result iп а coшpletely freed labor
fогсе, for coпsideгaЬle liшitatioпs still reшained iп force, Ьнt
it did repгeseпt the шost sigпificaпt pгogress шаdе after Stalin's
~oшpнlsory slave lаЬог brought political difficнlties to the
reg1шe анd also Ьесаше too costly as sооп as advaпced techпology
was iпtroduced iп the U.S.S.R. А slave laborer, no
matter· ћтv little you feed Ьiш, costs шоrе thaп Ье сан produce
ivћеп уон сонпt the adшinistrative appaтatus пeeded to assure
his coercioп. His labor Ьесошеs senseless and шust Ье discontinue~.
Modern pr·oduction liшits exploitatioп in otller ivays.
Масћшеrу caпnot Ье operated efficieпtly Ьу exћausted coшpulsory
labor, and adequate ћеаltЪ апd cultшal conditioпs
Ьаvе Ьесоше an indispensaЬle pгeгequisite.
Тће liшits to exploitation in the Coшшuпist systeш are
par·alleled Ьу liшits to the freedoшs of the labor force. These

freedoms at·e detennined Ьу the пature of ownership and govemment.
Until o-.;vnership апd goveгnment are chaпged, the
labor force canпot become free апd must remaiп subject to
moderate or severe forms of ecoпomic апd administrative
Because of its production needs, а Commuпist regime regulates
labor coпditioпs and the st.atus of the lаЬог force. Jt takes
maпy·sided and aН.encompassing social measures: it regul~tes
such things as -.;vorking hours, vacations, iпsuraпce, еdнсаtюп,
the labor of womeп and childreп. Many of these measшes are
largely nominal; many are also of а progressively harmful
Јп а Commнnist system the teпdency t.o regulate labor relations
and to maintaiп or·der and реасе in productioп is constant.
Тће single апd collective mvner solves laboт-force pтoЬlems
on an all-encompassing scale. Jt caпnot sнррогt "апаrсlч" in
anytblng, and certainly rюt in tће labor fшсе. Jt must гegпlate
it just as mпch as every otћer aspect of productioп.
The great boast that there is full employment iп Commпnist.
systems cannot ћide tће 1vounds 1vћiсћ Ьесоше e\'ident as one
looks more closely. As sооп as all matei·ial goods аге contгolled
Ьу one body, these goods, like mапро1vег пeeds, mпst become
tће subject of planпiпg. Political necessities play ан importaпt
role iп planпiпg апd tћis uпavoidaЬly тesпlts iп tће reteпtioп
of а number of Ьrапсћеs of iпdustry, 1vћich sпrvive at. tће
expense of otћers. Тћнs planning bldes actнal нnemploymeпt.
As soon as sectors of tће economy can engage in fгeer play, or
as sооп as it becomes unnecessaтy for the regime to sпstain and
streпgtheп оне Ьгапсћ at tће ехрепsе of апоtћеr, uпemploymellt
-.;vill rесш. More exteпsive ties with tће 1voтld market
can also cause tћis ti·eпd.
Coпsequeпtly, full employment is поt tће resпlt of Commuпist
"socialism" Ьнt of an ecoпomic policy carried опt Ьу
command; in tће final aпalysis, fпll employmeпt is tће result
of disharmoпy апd prodпctioп inefficieпcy. Jt does поt тeveal
the power but Ље weakness of the economy. Yugoslavia was
sћor~ of wor~ers uпtil it acћieved а satisfactory degree of productюn
efficieпcy. As sооп as it did, tllere -.;vas uпemploymeпt.
Uпemployшeпt 1vould Ье еvеп blgher if Yugoslavia attaiпed
maximum prodпctioп efficieпcy.
Јп Coшniuпist econoшies full eшployшent conceals uneшployшent.
Тће poverty of all coпceals tће uпешрlоушеrн of
sоше, just as the pheпoшenal progress of sоше sectors of tће
есоnошу coпceals the backwardпess of otћers.
Ву Ље sаше token, this type of шопороlу mvnersblp and
govemшe~t is аЬlе t.o pтevent. econoшic collapse, but iпсараЬlе
of preventшg chroпic crises. The selfish interests of the 11ew
class апd the ideological cћaracter of the есоnошу шаkе it
iшpossiЬle to шaintain а healthy and llarшonious systeш.
Marx 1vas поt the first. to visualize the есопошу of futнre
society оп а рlаппеd basis. Внt ће -.;vas tће first, or ашопg tће
first, to recogпize tћat а шоdеrп есоrюшу uпavoidaЬly teпds
toward planпiпg because, iп additioп to social reasoпs, it is
~eiпg estaЬlisћeq оп tlle basis of scieпtific teclшology. Мопороћеs
1vere the fii·st to рlап оп а gigaпtic пatioпal апd iпterпatioпal
scale. Today, plaпniпg is а geпeral рћепошепоп and
an iшportant eleшent of the econoшic policy of шost governшents,
even tћoнgh it ћаs а differeпt cћaracter in indнstrially
devel~ped countries froш tћat in indпstгially uпdeveloped ones.
Planшng Ьесошеs necessary when pтodпction reacћes an advaпced
stage апd 1vћen social, intemational, апd other coпditions
are subject to siшilar tтeпds. Jt does поt llave шuch conпection
with anyone's tћeories, let alone tllose of Мюх, 1vhicћ
were coпstr"Ucted on а far lo1ver level of social апd econoшic

vVhen tlle U.S.S.R. became the first country to embark upon
natioпal planning, its leaders, who 'vere Marxists, coпnected
tbls рlаппiпо- 'vitћ Marxism. The truth is tbls: altlюugh
ь . .
Marx's teacblпo-s "\vете the idealistic basis of tlle revolutюп ш
Russia, bls teacblngs also became the cover for later measш·es
taken Ьу the Soviet leaders.
All of tlle blstorical and specific reasons for Soviet planпing
>vere attriЬuted to correspondiпg tћeories. Marx's theory was
the closest апd most acceptaЬle because of tће social basis and
the past of the Commuпist movemeпt.
Altlюuo-h Iеапiпо- heavily on :Маrх in tће begiпniпg, Соm-
ь ь
muпist plaпning ћаs а mоте profound idealistic and mateтial
background. How can ан есопоmу Ье administeтed other thaп
as а planned есопоmу vvћеп it ћаs or is going to ћаvе а sing1e
o>mer? Ho'v coнld sнсћ tl·emeпdoнs investments Ье made for
tће pнrpose of iпdustrializing if tћеу >vere not plaпned?
Sometblno- mнst Ье пeeded Ьеfоте it сап become ап ideal. So
it is >vitћ Commнnist plaпniпg. It is dedicated t.o tће developmeпt
of tlюse brancћes of tће economy >vћiсћ >vill insнre tће
streпo-tћenino- of tl1e reo-ime. Tћis is tће g-eneral rule, altћoнg-h о о о ....... .._,
in every Commнnist coнntry, especially tllose "\vЪicl1 become
indepeпdent of Moscovv, tller·e are exceptioпs to tћis rнle.
Of coнrse, the developmeпt of the national есопоmу as а
'vЬole is important for tЬе stieпgtћening of tће regime, for it
is impossiЬle permaneпtly to sepaгate progress in one brancћ
of prodнction from anotЪer. Plarшing empћasis iп every Commнnist
system is alvvays directed tmvard brancћes of tће
ecorюmy tћat ar·e considered to Ье of decisive importance in
maiпtaiпing tl1e political staЬility of tlle regime. Тћеsе braпches
ar·e ones tћat enЬance tће role, po,ver, and privileges of tће
Ьнrеансrасу. Тћеу also are tће опеs tћat strengtlten tће regime
in its relatioпs to otћer coнпtries and make it possiЬle for tће
regime to iпdustr-ialize t.o а greater degree. Up to now, tћеу
ћаvе Ьеен Ьrапсћеs of ћеаvу and wаг industries. Tћis does поt
шеап tћat tће situation cannot. cћange iп iпdividнal couпtries.
Recently atomic eпergy, especially in tће U.S.S.R., ћаs begun
to take first place in tће plan; I sћoнld say tllat tЪis is llappeniпg
because of military, foreign and political considerations
ratћer tћan for any otller.
Ever]'tlling is subordinated to tћese aims. Coпsequeщly,
mапу Ьrансћеs of tће есопошу are laggiпg and 'vorking
inefficieпtly; dispгoportioпs апd diffiшlties are inevitaЬle; апd
excessive pr·odнctioп costs апd сlнопiс iпflatioп are rampant.
Accordiпg to Andre Pћilipe (iп tће New Leader, October 1,
1956), investments iп ћеаvу iпdнstry iп tЪе U.S.S.R. iпcreased
from tће 53.3 per сепt of total iпvestmeпts iп 1954 to 60 per
cent of total iпvestmeпts in 1955. т,venty-oпe per cent of tlle
пеt пatioпal iпcome is beiпg invested in indнstr]', witћ а coпceпtratioп
on ћеаvу industry, аltћонgћ lleavy indнstгy опlу
coпtriЬнted 7.4 per сепt to tlle increase iп iпcome per capita,
6.4 per сепt of vvblch 'vas dне to iпcreased prodнctioн.
It is uпderstaпdaЬle >vhy, under· sнcll conditions, the staпdard
of liviпg is tће last coпce!'Il of tl1e ne'v o>mers, еvеп thoнgћ,
as Marx ћimself maiпtaiпs, шен are the most importaпt factor
iп prodнction. Accoгding to Ed"rard Cranksћa>v, vvllo is close
to tће Britisћ Laboнr Рагtу, а despeгate battle for· survival must.
Ье foнght iп tће U.S.S.R. Ьу those >vћо еаш less tћап 600 rнЬles
moпtbly. Наrту Schvvartz, the New York Times expert on the
Soviet Uпion, llas estimated tllat appгoximately eight million
'vorkers earn less than 300 тнЬiеs monthly, and tlle Tribune,
repгesenting tlle point of vievv of tl1e Bгitisll Laboнr Par·ty's left
vving, adds tlle comment that tllis, and поt tlle eqнality of sexes,
is tlle r·eason for the large nнmbe!' of women employed at lleavy
labor. Тће recent 30-per-ceпt vvage incтease in tlle U.S.S.R. llas
applied to tllese lo'N->vage categoi"ies.
Tbls is the >vay it is iп the U.S.S.R. It is not. шнсћ different
in other Comшнnist coнntr-ies, not. even in coнпtr-ies like
Czeclloslovakia vvblch are tecllnologically very advanced. Once
an exporter of agricultнral piOdнcts, Yнgoslavia no>v impщts
tЪem. Accoiding to official statistics, tlle standard of living of

blue- a11d 1vhite-collar \Vorkers is lmver than before World
\Var П, whe11 Yugoslavia 1vas а11 u11developed capitalist couпtry.
Commu11ist pla1111i11g, devoted t.o political class i11teт·ests, a11d
totalitaria11 dictatorsllip suppleme11t eacll other. For ideologic
reaso11s, Commu11ists iпvest i11te11sively i11 certai11 bтa11ches of
the eco11omy. All pla1111i11g revolves arou11d tllese braпclles.
This leads to deep displaceme11ts iп tlle eco11omy whicll can11ot
Ье paid for Ьу i11come from 11atio11alized farms takeп over from
capitalists a11d large laпdo1v11ers, but. must Ье paid for mai11ly
tllrough tће impositioп of lo1v 1vages a11d the pillagiпg of peasaпts
tl1rougl1 tlle compulsory crop-purcllase system.
It migllt Ье said tllat if tlle U.S.S.R. ћаd 110t dопе such pla11-
11i11g, or if it Ьаd 11ot co11centrated 011 the developme11t of heavy
i11dustry, it 1vould Ьа-rе e11tered \Vorld Wаг П u11armed апd
would have Ьее11 tlle easily co11quered slave of tlle Hitler i11-
vasio11. This :s сопесt, but o11ly to а certai11 degree. For gu11s
апd ta11ks are 11ot the опlу stгeпgth of а cou11try. If Stali11 had
11ot had imperialistic aims i11 his f01·eign policy a11d tyra11пical
aims i11 his i11ternal policy, по groupiпg of po1veгs 1vould haYe
left his cou11try sta11ding alone before the invader.
This is clear: tће ideological арргоасh to pla11пing апd developme11t
of tlle economy 1vas 11ot esse11tial for tlle developmeпt
of а 1var industry. It 1vas put into actio11 because of tће
po1ver-holders' 11eed to Ье i11depe11deщ i11ternally a11d externally;
defe11se 11eeds 1vere o11ly associate 11eeds, eve11 tllough
they 1vere i11evitaЬle. Russia could have obtaiпed tlle same qua11-
tities of arrnaments, pгoceediпg u11der differe11t pla11s, li11ki11g
Ьеr more closely 1vitl1 foreign markets. Greater dерепdепсу 011
foreign markets would have 11ecessitated а differeпt foreig11
policy. Under prese11t-day co11dit.io11s, 1vl1ere 1vorld i11teгests are
i11terlaced a11d 1vheтe 1var·s are total, butter is almost as impOI·tant
as gu11s i11 the 1vagi11g of 1var. This was confiтmed еуе11 i11
the case of the U.S.S.R. Food fтom tlle U11ited States 1vas almost
as importa11t fот Yictory as war materiel.
The same is true 1vith regard to agriculture. U11der prese11tday
coпditio11s, progressive agricultш·e also means iпdustrializatio11.
Pтogr·essive agriculture does 110t iпsure that а
Communist regime 1vill Ье indepe11deпt of the outside. Inter-
11ally it makes tће regime depe11de11t 011 the peasaпt, eve11
though the peasaпts are membel'S of ћ'ее cooperatives. Coпseque11tly
steel Ьаs Ьееп give11 priority iп tће pla11, right beside
kolkhozes 1vith lo1v productioп. The plaппing of political
ро1vет· had to сате allead of ecoпomic progress.
Soviet, or Commuпist, plaпniпg is of а special kiпd. It has
поt eyolved as tlle тesult of tће tech11ological developmeпt of
pгoductioп поr as the result of the "socialist." coпsciousпess of
its iпitiators. I11stead it Ьаs evolved as tће result of а special
type of governmeпt and O\V11ers11.ip. Today, tecЬпical апd other
factors are i11flue11ci11g this type of рlаппiпg, but tЬese other
factors have поt ceased to Ьаvе tlleir effect оп the evolutio11
of tЬis type of plan11ing. It is very important to 11ote tЬis, for
it. is tlle key to u11dersta11di11g tlle cllaracter of this type of plannшg,
a11d of the capaЬilities of а Commu11ist eco11omy.
ТЬе results acЬieved Ьу such а11 eco11omy a11d Ьу such pla11-
ni11g ате vaтied. ТЬе сопсепtгаtiо11 of all mea11s to acЬieve а
specific рнтроsе make it possiЬle for tће po1ver-1vielders to
progress 1vith extraordiпary speed i11 certai11 ЬтапсЬеs of the
eco11omy. Tlle progress that tће U.S.S.R. Ьаs achieved i11 some
bгanclles ћаs ћeretofore пever Ьее11 acЬieved a11y1vhere in tће
1vorld. Hmvever, 1vl1e11 о11е coпsideгs the back\vard conditioпs
existiпg in otћer branches tће progress acЬieved is 110t. justified
from tће oveг-all economic point of vie1v.
. Of couтse, onc:-back\vard Rшsia ћаs attaiпed secoпd place
ш \Voтld productюn as far as its most importa11t branches of
tЬе eco11omy аге соnсетпеd. It ћаs become tће miићtiest conti·
nental pmver in tће 1vorld. А strong 1vorkiпg class, а 1vide stratum
of teclшical intellige11tsia, and tће materials fог consuшer
goods productioп ћаvе Ьееп created. Тће dictatoгsЬip ћаs поt

been essentially weakened because of this, nor are there ~ny
reasoпs to believe that the standard of living cannot Ье нnproved
in proportion to the couпtry's economic c~pabilities.
01vnership and political coпsiderations for whlCh the plan
is only ан implemeпt have made it impossiЬle to \Veake~ .the
dictatorship to any extent or to raise tlle standard of livшg.
The exclusive moпopoly of а siпgle group, in the ec_onon1y_ as
1vell as in politics, planпing tћat is directed toward шcreasшg
its po1ver and its interests in the country and tћroughout the
1vorld, continuously postpones tl1e improvement of the standard
of living and harmonious development of the econom~. Тће
absence of freedom is undoubtedly the final анd most Important
reason for the postponemeпt. In Communist systems freedom
has become the main ecoпomic and geпer·al proЬlem.
The Commuпist planпed ecorюmy conceals within itself an
anarchy of а special kind. In spite of the fact that it is planned,
the Commurlist economy is perhaps the most 1vasteful economy
ir1 the history of human society. Such claims may seem stтange,
especially if one has in mind the relatively rapid development
of individual branches of the economy, апd of t.he есопоmу as
а 1vhole. However, they have а solid basis.
\Vastefulпess of fantastic proportioпs was unavoidaЬle even
if this had поt Ьееп а group 1vhich coпsideгed ever-ytblпg, iпcludincr
the есопоmу, from its O\Vll narrO\V owпership and
ideolo~ical poiнt of vie1v. Ho;v could а siнgle group of this
kiнd admiпister а complex modern есоноmу effectively анd
thriftily-aн economy which, in spite of the most complete
plarшiпg, sho;ved yar·ied апd often contradictory iпterпal and
external teпdeнcies from day to day? The absence of ану type
of criticism, even of any type of important suggestioп, inevitaЬly
leads to ;vast.e апd stagnatioп.
Because of this political and ecoпomic omnipotence т t
f l
. , .vas e-
. u uп.d ertakшgs c. annot Ье avoided еvеп witћ tl1e ь es t о f
шtentюпs. Ver_y lн:le attention is paid t.o wћat t.he cost of
these undertakшgs 1s _to t.he economy as а ;vhole. Ниv great
are the costs to а nati~~ of an agтiculture which is stagпaпt
because of the su~erstitюus ~ommunist fear of the peasant
and unreas~nab!e шvestments ш heavy industry? Wћat is the
cost of cap1tal шvested iп iпefficieпt. industries? \Vhat is tће
cost of а ~tagnaпt traпsportation system? What is the cost of
роиlу pa1d \V~rkers, 1vћо coilSequently "goldbrick" апd 1voik
slowly? V:Тhat Is the cost of poor-quality productioп? Тћеrе is
по couпtшg these costs, поr сап they Ье calculated.
Ј ust as tћеу ~dmi~ister the eccmomy, the Commuпist Ieaders
handle everythшg ш а way contr·ю·y to their O'iVIl teach" ·
h · ћ · · . · шg,
t. at. Is, о~ tћe1r peisoпal VIe>vpoшt. The economy 1s JUSt
an area \VћiCh least toleiates arЪitraтiness. Еvеп if they -.vished
~о do so, the leaders could поt take iпto coilSideratioп the
шt~rests of the есопоmу as а whole. For political reasoпs tће
:ulшg gr~u?, de~;rщ~r:es ,;v~at is "vitally нecessar-y," "of key
Importance, or· deCistve ш а movement. Nothiпcr staпds iп
the 1vay of its с~пуiпg out the matteг in questi;n, for the
group_ IS ~ot afra1d of losiпg its р01vег or property.
Per·~odically _the leadeтs iпdulge iн criticism or self-criticism
апd c1te ехрепенсе >vhen theie is evidence that sometћincr is
not progressiпg or >v~:п. tremeп_dous ;vaste ћаs become ьарР~_
rепt. -~~rushc~ev cпtici~ed Stalш for ћis agr'icultural policy.
Т Ito cпtiCized h1s _т_vп тeg1me for excessive capital iпvestmeпts
and tће >vaste of blllloпs. ОсћаЬ cтiticized ћimself for tћ 1"s " .
d. . l" со п
Itю~a neglect of tће staпdaтd of liYiпg. But tће essence
Iemaшs tће same. Тће same mеп prolong the same system Ьу
about the same metlюd , uпtil Ьтеас.ћ еs and "1"rre gu1 a r-·I ti·e s "
become a~pareпt. Losses incuпed сан no loпger· Ье resto!'ed,
so tће reg1me апd tl1e party do поt take tће responsiЬility for
tће losses · Тћеу hav e " note d" t h е eпors апd these епотs '\Vill
Ье "corrected." So let's begin all over againl

There is no evidence that а single Communist leader has
suffered because of unproductively expended or fantastically
1vasted means. But mапу have been deposed because of "ideological
In Communist systems, thefts апd шisappтopriatioпs are inevitaЬle.
It is not just poverty that motivates people to st.eal
the "national property"; but the fact that tl1e proper·ty does
not seem to belong t.o anyone. All valuaЬles are somelю1v
reпdered valueless, tlшs creating а favoтaЬle atmospher·e for
tl1eft and waste. In 1954, iп Yugoslavia аlопе, over 20,000 cases
of theft of "socialist property" wer·e discovered. The Comшunist
leaders haпdle пatioпal property as their o1rn, but at
tће same time they 1vaste it as if it 1vere somebody else's. Sucћ
is tће nature of ovшership апd goveтnmeпt of tl1e system.
The QТeatest waste is поt еvеп visiЬle. This is t.he 1vaste of
ь maпpo1ver. The slo>v, uпproductive 1vork of disiпterested millions
toO"ether with the preveпtioп of all IVOI'k поt coпsider·ed
' ь "socialist," is the calculaЬle, invisiЬle, апd gigantic 1vaste 1vhicћ
no Comшunist regime has Ьееп аЬlе to avoid. Even thougћ they
are adhereпts of Smith's tћeory that labor creates value, а
theory 1vћich Marx adopted, these po1ver-1vielders рау the least
atteпtioп to labor апd maпpo1ver, regar·diпg tl1em as somethiпg
of very little value 1vhich сап Ье readily replaced.
ТЪе fear >vhich Commuпists ћаvе of "tl1e reпe1val of capitalism,"
or of ecoпomic coпsequeпces that 1vould arise fтom
пarro1v class "ideological" motives, has cost tl1e паtiоп aemeпdous
>vealth апd рпt а biake оп its developшeпt. Eпtir·e
iпdшtт·ies аге destioyed Ьесаше the state is поt in а position
to maiпtain or develop them; only that which is the state's is
coпsidered "socialist."
H01v far апd ћо1v loпg can а nation сапу оп like this?
The momeпt is appтoachiпg 1vhen iпdustiializatioп, >vhicћ first
made Commuнism iнevitaЬle, 1vill througћ further developшeнt
make the Communist foтm of governmeнt анd o>vнersblp
su perfl uoпs.
The 1vaste is tremeнdoш because of the isolation of Comшuнist
ecoнomies. Every Commпнist есоноmу is esseнtially
autaichic. The reasoнs for this aпtarchy lie iн the character of
its goverнmeнt анd o'\vнership.
No Commuнist сопнtгу-ноt еvен Yпgoslavia, which 1vas
oЬliged to cooperate to а greater exteнt >vith нon-Commuнist
couнt1·ies Ьесаше of its coнflict >vitћ Mosco>v-ћas Ьеен successful
iн developiнg foгeigп tгade Ьеуонd tће tтaditioнal ехсћанgе
of goods. Plaнned pгoductioн он а larger scale iн cooperation
witћ otl1er coпнtries ћаs поt Ьеен attaiнed.
Commпнist planнiнg, amoнg otћer things, takes very little
ассопнt of tће нeeds of >vorld maгkets or of the ргоdпсtiон iп
otћer coпнt1·ies. Partly as а r·esнlt of this, and partly as а resнlt.
of ideological анd otћer motives, Commuнist goveшmeнts take
too little accouнt of наtнгаl coпditioнs affectiнg pгodнction.
Тћеу ofteн coнstшct iнdшtгial plaнts 1vitћoнt ћaviпg sнfficieнt
ra1v mater·ials availaЬle for tћem, анd almost нever рау atteнtioн
to tће 1vorbl level of ргiсе анd ргоdнсtiон. ТЪеу ргоdнсе
some prodнcts at seveгal times tће pr·odпctioн cost iн other
coпнtr·ies. Simнltaнeoшly, ot11er Ьгапсћеs of iнdшtry >vblcћ
coпld sшpass tће 1vorld avei"age iн pr·odпctivity, or vvћicћ
coпld ргоdнсе at lo1veг prices tћан tће 1voгld аУегаgе, ar·e
neglected. Енtiге нevv iшlнstries are beiнg developed, even
tћoпgh >vorld maгkets аге sшfeited 1vith tlle items tl1ey 1vill
ргоdпсе. Тће 1vorkiнg people ћаvе to рау fог all tbls iн OI'der
to make tће oligaгcћs "iнdepeнdeнt."
This is оне aspect of tlle proЬlem commoп to Comnшнist
regimes. Аноtћеr is tl1e seнseless гасе of tl1e "leadiнg Socialist
сопнtrу"-tће U.S.S.R.-to overtake анd pass tће most ћigћly
developed сопнtгiеs. \\Тћаt does tћis cost? Апd wћere does it
PerЪaps tће U.S.S.R. сан ovei'take some Ьгансћеs of tће economy
of tће most ћighly developed соппtтiеs. Ву iнfiпite vvaste
of maнpo1ver, Ьу lo1v 1vages, анd Ьу neglect of tће other

branches of iпdustry, this may Ье possiЬle. It. is quite another
question 'vhether this is econornically justifiaЬle.
Such plans are aggressive in themselves. What does the nonCornmunist
'vorld think of the fact that the U.S.S.R. is determined
to hold first place in the production of steel and
crude oil at the cost of а lo>v standard of living? What is left.
of "coexisteпce" and "peace-loving cooperation" if they consist
of competition iп lleavy industry and of very small trade
exchaпges? Wllat is left of cooperation if the Cornmunist economies
develop autarcblcally, but penetrate the world rnostly
for ideological reasoпs?
Such plans апd relations waste domestic and 'vorld manpower
апd 'vealtћ and are unjustified from every vie,vpoiпt except
that of the Communist oligarclly. Techпical progress and
chaпging vital needs make оне brancll of tlle econorny irnportaпt
оне momeпt апd anotl1er tlle пехt; this is true for nations
апd for the world. What >vill hарреп if, fifty years from no>v,
steel апd petтoleum lose tlle significaпce tlley hold today? The
Communist leaders take по accouпt of this апd mапу other
Efforts at liпkiпg the Commuпist ecoпomies, tlle Soviet first
of all, to the rest of tl1e >vo!'ld, апd at the peпetratioп of the
'vorld Ьу these ecoпomies, aie far behiпd tlle actual technical
апd other capabllities of tћese есопошiеs. At tlleir preseпt stage
these economies could cooperate >vith tlle rest of the 'vorld to
а шuch greater degr·ee than they actually do. Tlle failure to
use their· capabllities for cooperatioп witћ the outside world
апd tlle rusll to peпetrate the outer world for ideological and
оtћет reasoпs are caused Ьу tlle шопороlу that tlle Coшшuпists
lюld over tlle есопошу and Ьу their need to шаiпtаiп po,ver.
Leniп 'vas largely right >vhen he stated that politics is а
"concentrated есопошу." Tbls has Ьееп reversed in the Coшшunist
systeш; есоnошу has Ьесоше concentrated politics; tllat
i.s, politics play ап alшost. decisive role in tlle есоnошу.
Sepю-ation froш the 'vorld шю·kеt, or the creation of а "'vorld
socialist" шarket, 'vmcll St.alin iпaugurated and to wllich Soviet
leaders still pledge allegiance, represents perhaps tlle шајоr
reason for 'vorld straiп and 'vorld-wide waste.
Мопороlу of ownersblp, antiquated шetlюds of productionno
шatter >vhose or wllat kiпd-are iп conflict with the world
econoшic needs. Freedoш vs. ownership has become а world
Тће abolishmeпt. of private, or capitalist, owпership in tlle
back>vard Communist states has шаdе possiЬle rapid, if поt
smooth, есопошiс progress. Tlle states llave become uпcoшnюnly
great physical powers, new апd resistant, with а selfrighteous
and fanatical class which llas tasted tlle fruits of
authority and o>vпersblp. This developшeпt cannot solve апу
of tlle questioпs that 'vere of coпcern to classic socialisш of
the пineteenth ceпtury, nor even those that were of coпcern
to Leпin; stillless can it insure economic advancement. >vithout
intemal difficulties and convulsioпs.
Despite its po,ver·ful conceпtration of forces in one pair of
haпds and its тapid if unbalю1eed successes, tl1e Cornшunist
economic system has Ьееп sho>ving deep fissuтes апd weakпesses
siпce the moment of its complete victory. Even tllougll it has
not yet reached the heigћt of its power it is already шnninointo
difficulties. Its future is less and less secuтe; the Сош~
munist economic systeш 'vill have to battle fur·iously, inside
and outside, for its existeпce.

 Tyranny over the Mind
There is only partial justification for seeking, iп Comnшпist
philosophy, the sources of tyranny over the mind, а tyranny
>vћich the Communists exeicise >vith cliпical refinement >vћеп
tћеу come to po>vei. Commuпist mateiialism is possiЬly шоrе
exclusive than any otl1er coпtemporaiy vie\v of tће >vorld. It
pusћes its adhereпts iпto the position 1vhich makes it. impossiЬle
for them to hold апу other vie>vpoint. If tћis vie>v >vere not
conпected >vitll specific forms of govemment and mvnersblp,
the шonstrous methods of oppression and destшctioп of the
human шind could not Ье explaiпed Ьу the vie\V itself.
Every ideology, еvету орiпiоп, tr-ies to r-epr·eseпt itself as the
опlу true опе апd complete опе. This is iппаtе iп шan's
It was поt tће idea itself Ьнt the шetllod Ьу >vћiсћ tће idea
'Nas applied tllat distingнisћed Marx апd Engels. Тћеу deпied
every scieпtific and progтessive socialist valнe iп tће tЬiпkiпg
of their coпtemporaries, нsнally lншрiпg sнch ideas into 'Ъoнrgeois
scieпce," tћнs banпiпg every serioнs discнssioп and study
iп advaпce.
The idea tllat >vas especially пarro1v апd exclнsive \Vitll Marx
and Eпgels, the idea froш 1vћich Coшmнпism later could drюv
substaпce for its ideological intoleraпce, was that of the iпseparabllity
of tће political views of а coпtemporary scieпtist,
thiпker, or artist from ћis real or scieпtific valнe as а tћiпker
or artist. If опе 1vas fонпd iп tће opposite сашр politically,
ћis every otћer objective or otћer 1vork was opposed or disregarded.
This positioп of Marx апd Eпgels сап Ье опlу partially explaiпed
as the resнlt of the furioнs oppositioп of the owners
апd po1ver-holders agitated Ьу the "specter of Commuпisш"
from the very beginпing.
Тће exclнsiveпess of Marx and Eпgels 1vas bom апd iпtensified
Ьу soшethiпg else tllat 1vas at the шots of wllat. tћеу had
leamed: coпviпced tћat they ћаd plнmbed tlle deptћs of every
pћilosoplly, they tћонgћt tllat it 1vas impossiЬle for апуопе t.o
attain aпythiпg sigпificant 1vitћoнt takiпg their О\VП vie,v of
tће world as tће basis. Онt of tће scieпtific atmospћere of tће
еросћ and out of tће пeeds of tће socialist nюvemeпt, Marx
апd Eпgels came to thiпk that апуtћiпg tћat 1vas поt importaпt
to theш, or to the шovement, 1vas поt importaпt, еvеп objectively;
that is, if it \Vas indepeпdeпt of tће movemeпt, it >vas
поt importaпt.
Coпsequeпtly, they proceeded practically uпaware of tће
most iшpor·taпt miпds of their time, апd disdaiпed the views
of орропепts iп their О\VП шovemeпt. Тће writiпgs of Marx
and Engels сопtаiп по шentioп of sнсћ а well-knowп philosopller
as Sсhорепћанеr or of ап aestћeticist like Таiпе. There
is по шепtiоп of tће 1vell-kпo'vn 1vriters апd artists of tћeir
period. There is поt. еvеп апу refereпce to those \vho were
санgћt нр iп the ideological and social stream to wllicћ Marx
апd Eпgels beloпged. They settled tl1eir ассонпts witћ their
oppositioпists iп the socialist шovemeпt iп а fierce апd iпtolerant
mаппеr. This was perћaps not importaпt for tће sociology
of Proнdhoп, Ьнt it \vas very iшportaпt for the developmeпt

of socialism апd social struggles, especially iп Fraпce. The
same may Ье said of Bakuпiп. Slaughteriпg Proudhoп's ideas,
Marx, iп his Misery of Philosophy} scornfully 1veпt Ьеуопd
his real role. Не апd Engels did the same 1vith the Ger~aп
socialist, Lassalle, as 1vell as 1vith other oppositionists inSide
their o>m movemeпt.
Оп the other haпd, tћеу carefully noted tће sigпificaпt intellectual
phenomena of tћeir time. They accepted _?anvin.
Тћеу particularly grasped tће cштents of the past-anc1eпt and
Renaissance-from >vћiсћ Europeaп culture had developed. In
sociology they borro>ved from Eпglisћ pol.itical ecorюm~ (Sшith
апd Ricardo) ; in pћilosopћy, froш class1c German p?Il?sophy
(Капt, Hegel) ; апd iп social theory, froш Frепсћ soCialism, or
frorn the curreпts tћat eшerged after the Freпch revolution.
These 1vere the great scieпtific, iпtellectual, апd social currents
tћat created tlle deшocratic апd progгessive clirnate of Europe
апd tће rest of tће 1vorld.
There is logic and coпsisteпcy iп the developrneпt of Cornrnuпisrn.
Marx 1vas rnore of а scieпtist, rnore objective tћап
Lепiп, 1vћо 1vas above all а great revolutioпary, forшed uпder
tће coпditions of Czarist absolutisrn, serni-coloпial Russian
capitalisш, апd 1vorld coпflicts Ьу rnoпopolists for spheтes of
Leaпing оп Marx, Lепiп taught tћat rnaterialisrn >vas piogressive
as а шlе tћroughout ћistory, апd that idealisrn was
reactioпary. Tћis >vas not опlу one-sided апd iпcorrect, but it
iпteпsified Marx's exclusiveпess. It also ernaпated from iпsufficient
kпo>vledge of historical pћilosophy. Iп 1909, 1vћеп Leпin
>vrote his Materialism and Empiro-Criticism} ће 1vas поt closely
acquaiпted >vitћ апу great pћilosopћer, classical or modern.
Because of tће пееd to overcome oppositionists wћose views
ћiпdered the developrneпt of ћis party, Leпin rejected everythiпcor
tћat was rюt iп accord witћ Mюxist views. То ћim, anv. -
thiпg 1vas eпoneous and valueless if it. was поt iп accord >vith
origiпal Marxism. It must Ье ackпo1vledged that, iп this respect,
bls works are outstaпdiпg exarnples of logical and persuasive
Believing tћat materialism had always been tће ideology of
revolutioпary and subversive social movemeпts, he dre1v the
one-sided coпclusioп tћat materialism was geпerally progressive-
even,iп t.he fields of researcћ and iп the development of
rnaп's tlюugllt-Yvћile idealisrn Yvas reactionary. Lепiп coпfused
form and method >vitћ сопtепt and witћ scientific discovery.
The fact tћat апуопе 1vas idealistic iп ћis thinkiпg was sufficieпt
for Lenin to disregard his real value апd the value of ћis discoveries.
Lenin extended ћis political iпtolerance to practically
the eпtire history of ћuшап tћougћt.
Ву 1920, Bertrand Russell, tће Britisћ pћilosopћer wћо welcomed
the October Revolution, had accurately rюted tl1e essence
of Leпinist, or Commuпist, dogrnatism: *
There is, ho1vever, another aspect of Bolsllevism from whicll
I differ more fundamentally. Bolsllevism is not merely а political
doctгine; it is also а religion, 1vitll elaborate dogmas
and inspiгed scгiptures. When Lenin wislles to prove some
pгoposition, ће does so, if possiЬle, Ьу quoting texts fr'om
Магх and Engels. А full-fledged Communist is not merely а
man 1vho believes tllat land and capital sllould Ье held in
common, and tlleir produce distriЬuted as nearly equally as
possiЬle. Не is а man 1vho entertains а number of elaborate
and dogmatic beliefs-such as pllilosopllic materialism, for
example-1vllich may Ье true, but аге rюt, to а scientific temper,
сараЬlе of being kno1vn >vitll any ceгtainty. This llaЬit,
of militant certainty about. objectively doubtful mat.ters, is
one from 1vhicll, since tlle Renaissance, t.lle 1vor'ld llas been
gradually emeгging, into tllat temper of const.ructive and frнitful
skepticism 1vhicll constitutes tlle scientific outlook. I believe
the scientific outlook to Ье immeasuraЬiy important to
tlle lшman race. If а more just economic system 1vere only
attainaЬle Ьу closing men's minds against free inquiry, and
plunging them back into the intellectual prison of the middle
• From Bolsl!evism: Practice and 'Тl!eory; New York, Harcourt, Brace & Howe.

ages, I should coпsider the price too high. lt саппоt Ье deпied
tћat, over ану slюrt period of time, dogmatic belief is а help
iп fightiпg.
But tllis vvas Leпiп's period.
Stalin vvent further; ће "deYoloped" Lenin, but vvitћout
hayincт Lenin's knovvledcтe or deptl1. Car·eful researcћ vvould ь ь
lead to tће conclusion tћat tћis man, vvћom KћruslкћeY l1imself
today ackno\vledges to ћаУе been tl1e ''Ьest Maтxist" of bls time,
l1ad поt еУеп теаd Marx's Das Kapital, tће most impoтtaпt
woтk on Marxism. Practical soнl tћat l1e 1vas, and sнpported Ьу
bls extreme dogmatism, it vvas not еУеп пecessary for blm t.o
Ье acqнaiпted witћ Marx's economic stнdies to bнild bls bтand
of "socialism." Stalin vvas поt closely acquainted vvitll апу
pbllosopћer. Не Ьећауеd to>vard Hegel as ће >voнld tmvard а
"dead dog," attтiЬuting to Ыm tће "reaction of Prussiaп absolut.
ism to tће Frепсћ reYolution."
Внt Staliп >vas uпcommoпly >vell acquaiпted >vitћ Lепiп. Не
al>vays sougћt suppo!'t in blm, to а gтeater extent tћап Lenin
did iп Marx. Stalin ћаd coilSideraЬle kпo>vledge of political
blstory only, especially Russiaп, апd ће ћаd ап uncommoпly
good memory.
Stalin really did поt need апу more tћап tћis for Ыs role.
Апуtћiпg tћat did not coincide >vitћ ћis пeeds and Ыs Yie1vs,
ће simply proclaimed as 'Ъostile" and forbade it.
Тће tћree men-Marx, Leпin, and Staliп-are contrasts as
men апd are contтasts iп tlleir metlюds of expx-essioп. In addit.
ioп to being а reYolutioпaтy, Marx v.•as а some>vћat simple
scieпtist. His style \vas pictuгesque, baroque, uniestraiпed, апd
witty in ап Olympian sort of vvay. Lenin seemed to Ье tће
iпcarnation of tће revolution itself. His style vvas flamboyaпt,
incisive, and logical. Stalin tlюugllt Ыs po1ver· lay in tl1e satisfaction
of all ћuman desires, and belieYed Ыs tћinking to Ье
tће supreme expression of Ьuman tћougћt. His style was colorless
апd monotonous, but its oversimplified logic and dogmatism
1vere convincing t.o tће coпformists and to common people.
It contained simplicities ћоm tће v.•пtшgs of tће Сћщсћ
fatћers, not so mucћ tће тesult of ћis r·eligious youtll as tlle
resнlt of tће fact tћat ћis >vas tlle >vay of expression under
primitive conditions, and of dogmatized Communists.
Stalin's follo>vei"S do not ћауе eYen bls crude iпternal coћesiveness
cnor ћis dogmatic po1ver·s and convictions. Aveiaa-e
шеn iп everytblng, tћеу possess an tшcoшmonly stгoncт sense ~f . ь
realнy. UnaЬle to geneтate пе>v systems or ne>v ideas because of
tћeir· commitment to vital buгeaнcratic realities, tћеу ате аЬlе
only to stifle or make impossiЬle tl1e creation of anytћiпg пevv.
Tћus is tће evolution of tће dog1natic and exclнsiYe aspect of
Comnшnist ideology. Тће so-called "furtlleг deYelopment of
Maгxism" ћаs led to tlle stт·eпgtl1ening of tће ne>v class апd
tlre soYereigпty not опlу of а siпgle ideology, Ьнt the soYeгeigпty
of tћoнgl1t of а siпgle mап or· gгонр of oligaгcl1s. This Ьаs
тesнlted in the iпtellectнal decline апd impoYeгishmeпt of tће
ideology itself. Aloпg >vitЪ tbls, iпtоlегапсе of otћer ideas, апd
еvеп of ћнmаn tћонgћt as sнcl1, lыs iппeased. Тће ideoloQ'V's
. "'' progтess, lts elemeпts of tr'Uth, lыуе decliпed iп propoi'tioп to
the iпcrease of pћysical po>ver of its disciples.
Becoming incieasiпgly one-sided and exclнsiYe, соntешрогагу
Сошшнnisш шоrе апd шоге cгeates lыlf-tr·utlls апd tгies
to jнstify tћеш. At first sigћt, it seems as if its vie1vs, individually,
\Vel'e tr'Ue. Внt it is iпcurably iпfected with lies. Its halftrutЪs
ате exaggerated апd debased to Ње poiпt of perversion;
tће шоiе Iigid апd tће шоrе iпspiгed it is with lies, tће шо1·е
it strengtћens the moпopolisш of its leaders oYer society, апd
thнs OYel' Coшrпнnist tћеогу itself.
The pr·oposition t.ћat Marxisш is а нпiversal шetlюd, а
proposit.ioп нроп >Ућiсћ Commнпists ю·е oЬliged to staпd, mнst
in practice lead to tyraпny iп all areas of iпtellectнal activity.

v\'hat. can the unfortunate pћysicists do, if atoms do not
Ьећаvе according to tће Hegelian-Marxist struggle or according
to the unif01·mity of opposites апd tћeir development into
ћigћer forms? Wћat of tће astroпomers, if tће cosmos is apatћetic
to Communist dialectics? Wћat of tће Ьiologists, if plants
do not. Ьећаvе according to tће Lysenko-Stalinist tћeory on ћarmony
and cooperation of classes iп а "socialist" society? Because
it is поt possiЬle for these scieпtists to lie пaturally, tћеу must
suffer tће coпsequeпces of tћeir 'Ъeresies." То ћаvе tћeir discoveгies
accepted tћеу must make discoveries "coпfirmiпg" tће
formulas of Marxism-Leпiпism. Scieпtists are iп а coпstaпt
dilemma as t.o wћetћer tћeir ideas апd discovet·ies ;vill iпjure
official dogma. Тћеу are tћerefore forced iпto opportuпism
and compromises ;vitћ regaгd to scieпce.
Тће same is true of otћer iпtellectuals. In many ;vays contempщaтy
Communism is гemiпiscent of tће exclusiveпess of
religioпs sects of tће Middle Ages. Тће obseгvations on Calviпism
;vritteп Ьу tће SerЬiaп poet, Ј оvап Ducic, iп bls Tuge
i vedrine (Sorrows and Calms), seem to relate to tће iпtellectual
atmospћer·e in а Commuпist couпtry:
... And tllis Calviп, jшist апd dogmatician, ;vhat lle did
not Ьшn оп tће funeгal руге, ће hardeпed iп tlle soul of the
people of Geneva. Не iпtгoduced religious triЬulatioп апd
pious гenuпciatioп iп these lюmes ;vhich are еvен today filled
'''ith tЪis cold and daгkпess; plaпted а hatred of all merrimeнt
апd raptшe, анd damнed poetry анd music Ьу decree. As а
politiciaп and tyr·ant at tће head of the гepuЬlic, he foгged,
Iike sћackles, his iгon la1\'S over life iн the state, анd еvен
regulated family feeliнgs. Of all the figures >vhich the Reforшatioн
fostered, Calvin is ргоЬаЬiу the most calloused of the
r·evolutioпary figures, апd llis BiЬle is the most depressiнg
textbook for liviпg. . . . Calviп ;vas поt. а пеw Cl1ristiaп
apostle ;vho 1vished to restore tlle faitll to its pristiпe purity,
siшplicity, апd s;veetпess, as it was 1vheп it sprппg forth from
the parabola of N azareth. Tllis Calviп 1vas tlle Аrуап ascetic,
who, severiпg llimself from tlle regime, also severed himself
from love, tlle basic priпciple .of bls dogma. Не created а
people, earnest анd full of viгtue, but also full of llatred of
Ше апd full of disbelief iп llappiпess. Tllere is по harsher
religioп or mше fearful prophet. Of tlle people of Geпeva,
Calviн made paralytics forever iнсараЬlе of ану јоу. Тћеге
are п9 people iп the world .to wlюm religioн llas brougllt as
much triЬulatioп апd dreaгiпess. Calviп was ан emiнeпt religious
writer, as importaпt to the purity of the Freпch laнguage
as Luther was importaнt to the purity of the Gепnап
laпguage, the traпslator of the BiЬle. But he was also the
creator of а theocracy which 1vas по less like а dictatorsllip
tћап was tће Papal moпarclly. Wblle аппоuпсiнg that he 1vas
fгeeiпg maп's spir'itual persoнality, ће degraded man's civil
persoпality to the Ьlackest slavery. Не coнfused the people
апd failed to brigllteп life iп ану way. Не chaпged mапу
thiпgs, but completed пothiпg апd coпtriЬuted пothiпg. Almost
300 years after Calviп, iп Geнeva, Steнdllal observed
ho1v youпg mеп апd youпg womeн carried оп coнversatioпs
опlу about "the pastor" апd his last sепnоп, апd llow they
kпew Ыs sermoпs Ьу heart.
Coпtemporary Commuпism also contains some elements of
the dogmatic exclusiveпess of tће Puтitaпs uпder Crom1vell апd
of tће political intolerance of tће JacoЬins. But tћет·е are esseпtial
differences. Тће Pшitans rigidly believed in tће BiЬle and
tће Commuпists believe in science. Cornшunist po>ver is шоr·е
cornplete tћan that of the JacoЬins. Furtћer, tће differences
emanate ћоm the capaЬilities; по religion or dictatorsblp has
been аЬlе to aspiтe to such all-at·ound анd all-iпclusive poi\'er
as tћat of tће Comrnuпist systems.
Тће convictioп of tће Cornmunist leadeтs that tћеу ;vere on
tће раtћ leading to tће creatioп of absolute ћappiпess and an
ideal society gre;v in propoition to tће gro;vtћ of their pmver.
It has been said in jest tћat tће Communist leaders пeated а
Cornrnuпist society-for tћemselves. In fact, tћеу do identify
tћernselves witћ society and its aspirations. Absolute despotism
equates itself ;vitћ tће belief in absolute lшman happiness,
tћougћ it is an all-inclusive and universal tyranny.

Progress itself hGs transfonned the Communist power-wielders
into boosteгs of tће 'Ъumап coпsciousness." Tћeir concern for
human consciousпess ћаs increased as tћeir po>ver ћаs iпcreased,
aloпg Ћ'itћ tће "bнilding of socialism."
Yugoslavia ћаs not bypassed tћis evolution. Some of tће Yugoslav
leader·s, too, stressed tће 'Ъigћ level of consciousness of
our people" during tће revolutioпary period; tћat. is, wћile
"онr people," or some of tl1em, actively suppиted tћese leaders.
No>v, ћmvever, the "socialist" coпsciousness of tће same people,
accordiпg to tћese leaders, is very lo1v and, coпsequeпtly, mпst
Ћ'ait for democracy iп order to Ье raised. Yugoslav leaders
орепlу speak of tlle fact that they 1vill besto>v democracy "1vheп
tћere is grmvtll of socialist consciousпess"; а kind of coшciousness
1vћiсћ tћеу tп1st >vill automatically Ье attained tћrougћ
industrializatioп. Until tћen, tћese tћe01·eticians of а democracy
1vblcћ is doled out in small doses, mеп 1vho practice sornetblng
eпtirely contrary to dernocгacy, rnaintaiп tћat tћеу ћаvе tl1e
rigћt-in tl1e name of future ћappiпess апd freedom-to preYent
еуеп tће faintest rnanifestations of ideas or of апу consciousпess
wћiсћ is нпlike tћeirs.
Регћарs only iп tће begiппiпg 'lvere Soviet leaders forced t.o
maпeнver >vitћ sнсћ sћallo1v pr·ornises of democracy "in tl1e
future." Тћеу rю1v sirnply rnaintaiп tћat tћis freedom ћаs alIeady
been created iп tlle U.S.S.R. Of сошsе, еуеп tћеу sense
tћat freedom is at iVOik tшder· tllem. Тћеу аге coпstaпtly "elevatiпg"
conscioнsпess; tl1ey urge mеп to "produce"; tћеу crarn
rniпds 1vitll ar-id Marxist foшшlas апd tће aiid political Yie'lvs
of tlle leadeп. \Vorse still, tlley for·ce rneп coшtaпtly to ackпo>vledge
tћeir· deyotioп to socialisrn апd tћeir· beliefs iп tће infalliЬility
апd reality of tће pmrnises of tlleir leadeтs.
А citizeп iп tlle Cornrnuпist system liYes oppressed Ьу the
constaпt paпgs of ћis сопsсiепсе, and tће fear tЪat he has traпsgressed.
Не is al>vays fearful tћat ће will ћаvе to dernoпstтate
tllat he is not ап eпerny of socialisrn, just as in the Middle Ages
а rnan coшtantly ћаd to sћmv ћis deYotion to tће Clшrch.
The scћool systern апd all social апd iпtellectual activity
'lvork to1vaтd this type of behavioт. Fтorn Ьirth t.o death а rnan
is suпouпded Ьу tће solicitude of the ruling party, а solicitude
for his coшciousness апd conscience. Ј oшnalists, ideologists,
paid wгiters, special scћools, approved ruliпg ideas, апd trerneпdous
rnatefial rneans ar·e all enlisted and eпgaged in this "upliftiпg
of socialisrn.'' Iп tће fiпal analysis, all nбvspaper'S аге
official. So ar·e tће radio and otћer sirnilar rnedia.
Тће results are поt great. In по case are they proportionate
to tће rneaпs and measш·es ernployed, except for tЪе пеw class
>vћiсћ iVould, in апу case, Ье coпviпced. Ho>vever, consideraЬle
results are attained in rnaking it irnpossiЬle to rnaпifest а coпscio_
usпess. о~ћеr tћan tlle official one, апd in cornbatting opposшg
Еvеп uпder Cornrnuпism, mеп tћiпk, for tlley cannot help
but tblпk. \Vћat. is rnoгe, tћеу tblпk differeпtly frorn tће pr·escriЬed
rnaппer. Tћeir thiпkiпg ћаs t1vo faces-one for theщ.
selves, tlleir· OiVП; tће otћer for tlle puЬlic, the official.
EYen iп Cornrnuпist systerns, rneп are поt so stupefied Ьу unifonn
pl'Opaganda tћat it is irnpossiЬle for tllern to arrive at tће
trutћ or at пе1v ideas. In tlle intellectual field, ћowever, tће
рlап of tће oligaгcћs гesults less iп productioп tћап iп stacr-
• • t>
natюn, сопuрtюп, апd decay.
Тћеsе oligaiclls апd soul-saveтs, tћese vigilaпt protectors 1vlю
see to it tћat ћurnan tћougћt does поt. dгift into "cтirniпal
tlюugћt" or "anti-socialist liпes"; tћese uпscшpulous procurers
of tће сћеар and actually tће only availaЬle consumer
goods-tћese ћolders of obsolete, uncћangeaЬle, and irnrnutaЬle
ideas-ћave retarded and fr·ozen tће iпtellectual irnpulses of
theiт people. Тћеу ћаvе tћougћt up tће most antilшman vvords
-"pluck frorn tће lшrnan consciousпess" -and act. accoгding to
tћese >vords, just as if tћеу 1vere dealing >Vitћ гoots and weeds
iпstead of rnaп's tlюugћts. Ву stifliпg tће consciousness of
otћers, and Ьу ernasculatiпg ћuman iпt.ellect so tћat it cannot
take courage and soar, tћеу t.ћernselves become gray, Ьапеn of

ideas, and completely lacking in the intellectual enthusiasm
that disinterested meditation inspires. А "\Vithout an
aш1ience: the actors play and go into raptures over themselves.
Tl1ey tblnk as autoшatically as they eat; their brains cook
tћoпghts in response to the most eleшentary needs. This _is hmv
it is 1vith tћese ћigћ priests 1vћо are sinшltaneously pol1ceшen
and mvners of all the media ,vblcћ tће ћпшаn intellect can пsе
to comnшnicate its tlюugћts-press, movies, radio, television,
books, and tће Iike-as well as of all substance tћat keeps а
ћпшаn Ьеiп()' alive-food and а roof over ћis ћеаd.
Ar·e tћere not reasoпs tћen for compaтiпg contemporary Com-
шппism "\vith religioпs sects?
Nevertћeless, every Commппist country achieves tecћnical
piogress, even thougћ of а special kind and in special periods.
Industrialization, r-apid as it is, cтeates а laige tecћnical intelligentsia,
"\vћiсћ, еvеп if it is not especially ћigh in quality,
attтact.s talents апd stimulates the iпveпtive iпtellect. Тће r·easoпs
tћat ћеlр to acћieve iпdпstrialization rapidly in specific
Ь!'апсћеs of tће есопошу also act. as ап iпceпtive for iпveпtiveпess.
The U.S.S.R. has not lagged to any extent iп "\V-ar techпology
eitћer in World War П or since. Тће U.S.S.R. is поt
far beblnd tће United States in the development of atomic
eпergy. Tecћnology is advaпced iп spite of tће fact. tћat а bпreaпcratic
system makes it difficпlt. to adopt iтшovatioпs; inveпtions
sometimes lie for years iп tће "\vareћouses of state
estaЬiisћments. Тће disinterest of pr·oducing organizations ofteп
deadens iпventiveness still more.
Being very practical шеn, tће Communist leaders immediately
estaЬiisћ cooperation witћ tecћпiciaпs апd scientists, not paying
mпсћ attention t.o tћeir 'Ъoпrgeois" views. It is clear to tће
Ieaders that indпstrialization cannot Ье accomplisћed "\vithout
tће tecћnical intelligentsia, and tћat tbls intelligentsia cannot
Ьу itself Ьесоше dangeroпs. As in every otћer field, Commпnists
ћаvе а simplified and geпeтally ћalf-coпect theoтy >vitћ relation
to tbls intelligentsia: some other class al\vays pays tће specialists,
wblle tћеу serve it. Conseqпently, >vћу sћoпldn't tће "proIetaтiat,"
or the ne\v class, also do tbls? Acting on this propositioп,
tћеу iшшediately develop а system of >vages.
In spite of tћeir· tecћnical progтess, it is а fact. that no great
mode!Тl scientific discovery ћаs been acbleved пnder the Soviet
goveшment. In tћis тespect, tће U .S.S.R. is probaЬly beblnd
Czarist Rпssia, wћere there were epochal scientific discoveries
in spite of tecћnical back>vardness.
Even thoпgl1 tecћnical reasons make scientific discovery difficпlt,
tће main reasons for tbls difficпlty are social. Тће ne.v
class is very iпterested in seeing tћat its ideological monopolism
is not endanger·ed. Every great scientific discovery is the result
of а cћanged vie>v of tће >vorld iп tће mind of the discoverer.
А ne>v vie\v does not fit into tће foпn of the already adopted
official pћilosopћy. Iп tће Commпnist system every scientist
rnпst stop sћort before tbls fact. or risk beiпg proclairned а
"heretic" if his tl1eories do not coincide >vitћ tће coпfirmed,
prescriЬed, and desiтaЬle dogrna.
Work оп discover·ies is made difficult to an еvеп greater degгee
Ьу the irnposition of the official vie>v tћat Marxism, or
dialectical materialisrn, is the most effective metћod for all
fields of scieпtific, intellectual, and otћer activity. Тћеr·е ћаs
not Ьееп а siпgle noted scientist in tће U.S.S.R. >vћо ћаs поt
ћаd political tгопЬlе. Тћеrе ћаvе Ьееп mапу r·easoпs for this,
Ьпt опе is due to oppositioп to the official liпe. Тћеrе have
Ьееп fe>ver оссппепсеs of tћis kiпd iп Yпgoslavia, Ьпt coпversely,
theтe are iпstances of the favoriпg of "devoted" Ьпt
poor scieпtists.
Comrnпnist systeшs stirnulate tecћпical progress but also
blпder every great research activity "\vhere undisturbed func

tioпing of the mind is necessary. This may souпd contradict.ory,
but it is so.
Wћile Comnшnist systems are only relatively opposed to
scierнific development, tћеу are absolutely opposed to апу intellectual
progress and discovery. Based оп the exclusiveness of
а single philosophy, the systems are expressly anti-philosophic.
In such systems, there has not been born, nor сап there Ье
born, а siпgle thiнker, especially а social thinker-as long as
one does not so consider the po-.;ver->vielders themselves, who
are gener·ally also the "main philosopћers" and masters for
"elevatincr" the lшman consciousness. In Commuпism а ne1v t:>
tћought, or а ne1v philosophy and social tћeory, must travel Ьу
very indirect roads, generally Ьу the way of literatuтe or some
br·anch of art. The ne-.;v thought must first hide апd conceal
itself in order to reacl1 the Iight. апd begin to live.
Of all the sciences and all tћought, social sciences and tЪе
consideration of social pr·oЬiems fare the worst; they scarcely
manage to exist. Wћеп it is а question of society or of а social
proЬlem, everytblпg is interpreted accor·ding to Marx and
Lenin, or everything is monopolized Ьу tће leaders.
History, especially of its oш1-the Communist--period, does
not exist. lmposition of silence and falsification are not only
permitted but are general phenoшena.
The intellectual inћeritance of tће people is also being confiscated.
The шoпopolists act as if all blstory has оссщтеd just
to let tћеш шаkе tћeir appearance iп tће -.;vorld. They шeasure
tће past and everythiпg in it Ьу tћеiт o1vn likeпess and forш,
апd apply а siпgle шеаsuте, dividing all шеп and рћеnошепа
iпto "progгessive" апd "reactioпary" classifications. Iп this
fasћioп tћеу raise up шonuшents. Тћеу elevate tће pygшies
апd destroy tће great, especially tће great of tћeir own tiшe.
Their "siпgle scieпtific" шetlюd is шost suitaЬle too in tћat
it alone protects апd justifies tћeir exclusive dошiпапсе over
science and society.
Siшilar tblпgs are happening iп art. Here favors are exteпded,
in incтeasing шeasure, to alr·eady estaЬlisћed fотшs and
vie1vs of average quaJity. Tbls is uпdel'StandaЬle: tЪere is no
art 1vitЪout ideas, or -.;vitћout some effect оп tЪе consciousness.
Morюpoly over ideas, tће fOI"matioп of tће coпsciousness, are
tће prerequisites of tl1e rulel'S. Coшшuпists are tгaditioпalists
in art, mostly because of tће пееd to шaiпtain tћeir шопороlу
over tће miпds of tће people but also because of tћeir ignOiance
апd one-sidedness. Sоше of tћеш toleгate а kiпd of deшocratic
freedoш in шodern art; but this is only ап acknowledgшent tћat
tћеу do поt under·stand modern art, апd tћeгefore believe tћat
tћеу sћould регшit it. Lепiп felt this 1vay about tЪе futurisш
of Mayakovsky.
Iп spite of tbls, back -.;vard peoples iп Coшшunist systeшs experience
а cul tural renaissance aloпg >vith tће teclшical оп е.
Cнlture becomes IПOI'e accessiЬle to theш, even tћough it comes
Iaтgely iп tће forш of pr·opagaпda. The ne-.;v class is iшerested
in tl1e sprcad of cнltнre Ьесанsе indнstrializatioп bтings the
пееd for higl1er·-qнality >VOI'k апd tће пееd for enlarging iпtellectнal
oppoтtнnities. The пet...vOik of schools and professioпal
branches of art has spгead very r·apidly, soшetiшes even beyond
actнal neelis and capaЬilities. Pr·ogтess in art is uпdeniaЬle.
After а гevolution, Ьеfоте the rнliпg class llas estaЬlisћed
а coшplete шonopoly, significant -.;vor·ks of art ar·e gener·ally
cгeated. ТЫs 1vas trнe iп the U.S.S.R. prioт to tlle 1930's; it
is true today in Yugoslavia. It is as if tће тevolutioп ћаd
a;vakeпed doпnant talents, еvеп tllougћ despotisш, 1vhicЬ is
also born iп tlle revolution, iпcгeasiпgly stifles art.
ТЬе t"\vo basic шethods of stifliпg tЪе arts are Ьу oppositioп
to1vard tће iпtellectual-idealistic aspects of it and Ьу oppositioп
t.o innovations in forш.
In Stalin's tiшe things теасЬеd tlle point wћere all forms

of artistic cxpression were forЬidden except those that Stalin
hirnself liked. Stalin did not have particularly good tast.e; he
1vas haтd of hearing, and liked octosyllaЬic and Alexandrine
verse. Deutscher has stated that Stalin's style becarne the national
style. The adoption of official vie1vs on art forrns becarne
as oЬligatory as the adoption of official ideas.
It ћаs not aћvays beer1 like tbls in Cornrnuпist systerns, поr
is it inevitaЬle that. it sћould Ье so. Iп 1925, in tће U.S.S.R., а
resolutioп vvas adopted stating that "tће par-ty as а whole сан
iп по 1vay tie devotioп to а cause iп tће field of literary forrn."
Ву this tће party did поt rепоuпсе its so-called "ideological
aid," that is, its ideological апd political cor1trol over artists.
This 1vas tЪе rnaxirnurn dernocracy attained Ьу Cornrnuпisш
in the field of art. Yugoslav leaders are in the sаше position
today. After 1953, -vvhen the abandonшent of deшocratic forrns
in favor of bureauct-acy Ьеgап, the шost priшitive and reactionary
eleшents vveie encoнгaged; а шаd hнnt for "petit boнrgeois"
intellectнals 1vas initiated, which openly airned at controlling
агt fшшs. Oveшigћt, the whole iпtellectнal world
tнrned against the regiшe. Consequently, the regiшe had to
retract, aпnoнпcing tћt·oнgh one of Kardelj's speecћes tћat
the party cannot prescтiЬe fогш itself, but that it -vvoнld not
allo>v "anti-socialist ideological coпtтaband," that is, vievvs
1vhich the regiшe coilSideтed as being "anti-socialist." The Bolshevik
parties l1ad takeп this staпd in 1925. This constitнted
the "deшocratic" liшits of the Yнgoslav regiшe tovvard art.
Ho1vever, tће iпteшal attitнdes of шost. of the Yнgoslav leaders
wете far froш cћanged Ьу this. Тћеу privately coilSider tће
eпtire iпtellectнal and at·t 1vorld as "iпsecuтe," "petit bourgeois,"
or, pнttiпg it шildly, "ideologically confused." Cited
in Yнgoslavia's greatest newspaper (Politika} Мау 25, 1954)
are Tito's "llllforgettaЬle" 1vords: "А good textbook is шоrе
valнaЬle than any пovel." Periodic ћystet·ical onslaнghts agaiпst
"decadence," "destrнctive ideas," and "hostile vie-vvs" in art
have continнed.
Yнgoslav снltнге, unlike Soviet cнltцre, has at least sнcceeded
in coпcealing, ratћer tћan destгoyiпg, dissatisfied and tuтbuleпt
opiпions regarding атt forrns. Tћis has never been possiЬle
for Soviet снltш·е. А s1vord haпgs over Yнgoslav cultнre, Ьнt
the s1vord ћаs Ьееп driveп iпto tће heart of Soviet culture.
Relative freedoш of form) -.;vhich the Coшшuпists сан опlу
periodically suppress, саппоt cornpletely free the creative persoп.
Ait, еvеп thougћ indirectly, шust. also express пеw ideas
thioнgћ forш itself. Even iп Conшшпist systerns vvhere art is
allovved tће greatest fieedorn, tће coпtradiction between prornised
ћее forш and cornpнlsory control of ideas rernains
unresolved. This coпtt-adiction crops онt from time to time,
sometimes in attacks on "contraband" ideas, sometimes in the
1vor·k of artists Ьесанsе they are foiced to use particнlar forms.
It crops онt. esseпtially because of conflict bet\\'een the нncurbed
moпopolistic aspiratioпs of the regime and the irresistiЬle
creative aspiratioпs of tће artists. It is, actпally, tl1e sarne
coпflict 1vhich exists between creativeness in scieпce апd Commнnist
dogmatism; it. ћаs meiely been carried over iпto the
field of ai't.
Апу ne-.;v thoнght or idea mнst first Ье exaшined in esseпce,
appioved or disapproved, and fitted iпto а harmless frarne.
As 1\'itћ otћer coпflicts, the Comrnнпist. leaders caпnot. resolve
tllis опе. Внt they can, as we have sееп, peiiodically extr'icate
themselves, usнally at the expense of real ft·eedom of artistic
creation. Iп Commнпist systems, it has поt been possiЬle, because
of tllis contradictioп, to develop geпнine subjects for ait
or to develop art theory.
А ;voтk of art, Ьу its very nature, is usнally а criticism of а
giveп sitнation апd of given relations. In Commнnist systems,
therefore, aгtistic cr·eation based on actнal sнbjects is поt possiЬle.
Only praise of а given situation or criticism of the
system's opponeпts is permitted. Under these terrns art сап
ћаvе по valнe wћatever.
In Yugoslavia officials and some artists coпplain about the fact

that there are no vvor·ks of art vvhich can shovv "our socialist
reality." In tће U.S.S.R., on tће otћer lland, tons of vvorks of
art based on actual subjects are пeated; but since tl1ey do not
reflect tће trutћ, tl1ey do not have any value and are rapidly
rejected Ьу the puЬlic, later even coming under official criticism.
Тће metћod is varied but t.he final result is the same.
The theory of so-called "Socialist Realism" reigns in all
Communist. st.ates.
In Yugoslavia tbls t.heory has been пushed and is now held
опlу Ьу the most reactioпю·y dognыtists. Iп tbls area, as iп
others, the regime has been stroпg enougћ to forestall the
developmeпt of disagreeaЬle theories but has Ьееп too weak
to impose its о>vп vie>vs. It сан Ье said that. tће same goes for
t.he otћer East Eнropean countries.
Тће theory of "Socialist Realism" is поt even а complete
system. Gorky vvas tће fiпt to use tbls term, ртоЬаЬlу inspiтed
Ьу bls realist. metћod. His vievvs vvere tћat iп тude coпtemporaгy
"socialist" coпditioпs, art mнst Ье inspired \\'itl1 ne1v ш socialist
ideas and must depict гeality as faitblпlly as possiЬle. Everytl1iпg
else tllat tbls tlleory advocates-typicalness, empllasis on
ideology, party solidarity, etc.-ћas eitl1eг Ьееп takeп over fтom
otller t.heories or tlлo1vn iп because of tlle political needs of
the regime.
Not llaviпg been evolved iпto а complete tћeory, "Socialist
Realism" actually meaпs ideological moпopolism Ьу Commuпists.
It calls fот effor·ts to clothe t.he naпo\v, back,vard ideas
of tће leadeгs iп art forms апd for tlleir 1vorks to Ье depicted
romaпtically and paпegyrically. This llas led to а Plыrisaic
justificaton of tће regime's coпtrol over ideas апd to buтeaucratic
censorsћip of the пeeds of art. itself.
The forms of tbls coпtrol vату in differeпt Communist сонn-
tтies, fгom party-bureaнcratic ceпsorship to ideological iпflu.
Yugoslavia, for iпstaпce, has пever ћаd censorsћip. Coпtrol
is exeтcised iпdir·ectly Ьу tbls method: iп puЬlisћiпg enter·prises,
artist's associatioпs, periodicals, пe1vspapers, and tlle
like, party 'membel'S sнbmit eveгytblпg tћеу consider "suspicioнs"
to tће piOper autћorities. Censorsblp, or· really selfceпsorsblp,
ћаs sprouted fтom that very atmospћere. Even
tћонgћ party membeтs may pнsh sometblпg or other thi'Ough,
tће self-ceпsorsl1ip 1vћiсћ tћеу and otћer iпtellectнals must. exercise
оvет tllemselves for·ces them to dissemЬle eveтything and
make uшvorthy insiппations. But tbls is consideтed pr·ogтess,
it is "socialist <:lemocracy br="" burea="" cratic="" despotism.="" i="" of="" stead="">Neitћeг in tl1e U.S.S.R. nот in other Communist couпtтies
does tће existeпce of ceпsoгsblp absolve creating artists fтom
self-censoгsl1ip. Intellectuals are forced iпto self-censorsblp Ьу
tћеiт status and tће reality of social гelatioпs. Self-censorship
is actually the maiп form of paity ideological сопtтоl iп the
Commuпist system. In tl1e Middle Ages men first ћаd to delve
iпto the tlloнght of the Сћпrсh on their 1Nшk; in the same
mаппег, iп Commппist systems, it is песеssагу fiтst to imagiпe
1vhat kiпd of performance is expected and, often, to ascer·taiп
t.he taste of tlle leaders.
Ceпsoгsblp, ог self-ceпsoгsћip, repгeseпts itself as beiпg
"ideological aid." In tlle same \vay, everytblng in Communism
is r·epreseпted as being devoted to the implementatioп of absolпte
Ьappiness. Consequeпtly, the expr·essions "the people,"
"the >voгkiпg people," and similaт ones-in spite of tћeir
vagueness-are used freqнently iп conпectioп >vitll tlle arts.
Pe!'Secпtioпs, pгoblЬitioпs, tlle impositioп of forms апd
ideas, humiliations, and iпsнlts; tће doctr'iпaiгe autllority of
semi-literate bureaucгats over· geпiuses; all tћis is dопе iп the
паше of tће people and for the people. Commuпist "Socialist.
Realism" is not different even in teгminology fi·om Hitler's
National Socialism. А Yugoslav autћor of Hungariaп шigin,

Ervin Sinko, has made an iпterestiпg compat·isoп of the "art"
·theoreticiatls in the t.wo dictatorships:
Timofeyev, the Soviet theorist, '\vrote in his Theory of Literatuтe:
"Litei"ature is an ideology -..vhich helps ma~ .to ?et
acquainted 1vith Ше and to realize tllat he is partiCipatшg
in it." . .
. " .
"Fundamentals of Natioнal-Sociallst Cultural Ро 1су states.
"An artist санноt Ье опlу an artist, he is also always an educator."
Baldur von Scblrach, leader of the Hitler Youth, stated:
"Every true work of art applies to the entire people." .
Zhdanov member of the Politburo of the Central Commlttee
of the 'communist Party of the U.S.S.R., stated: "Everything
that is creative is ~,ccessiЬle." . " .
In "Fuнdamentals . . . Wolfgaнg Schulz stated. NatюnalSocialist
policy, even that part of it which is called cultural
policy, is deteпnined Ьу the Fiihrer and those to whom he
has delegated authority." .
If we ,vish to know 1vhat Natioнal-Socialist cultural pollcy
is we must look to t.hese men, to \vhat they \vere doiнg and
t~ the directives they issued iн order to educate t·esponsiЬle
associates for themselves.
At the Eighteeпth Congress of the Communist Party of the
U.S.S.R., Yaтoslavsky said: "Comrade Staliн inspires artists;
he gives them guiding ideas .... Tlle гesolutioнs of the Cential
Committee of the Soviet Cornrnunist Party анd the report
of А. А. Zhdanov give Soviet -..vriters а completely prepared
;voik program."
Despotisrns, еvеп \vhen they are opposing ones, justify themselves
iп tЪе sarne ;vay; they cannot even aYoid the use of the
sarne >Voids in doing so.
Ап enemy to thought iп the паше of scieпce, ан епеmу to
freedorn iн the nаше of dernociacy, tlle Cornrnunist oligarclly
саппоt but accomplish cornplete coпuptioп of the mind. Capi-
talist magпates апd feudalloids used tq рау artists and scientists
as they could and -..vished, and thus both aided апd coпupted
them. Iп Cornrnuпist systems, coпuption is ан iпtegral part
of state policy.
The Communist system, as а rule, stifles апd represses ану
iпtellectual activity 1Vith '\Vhich it does !lOt agiee; that is, everytblпg
that is pt·ofouпd апd origiпal. Оп the otЪer hand, it
re1vards апd eпcouiages, апd actually coпupts, all that it tblпks
1vill beпefit "socialism," that is, tће system itself.
Еvеп overlooking such coпcealed апd drastic means of corruptioпs
as "Staliп prizes," the use of persoпal ties ;vith tће
po1vexs-that-be, апd the capricious demaпds and purcћases of
the top bшeaucrats-all of 1vћiсћ represeпt extremes of tће
system-the fact remaiпs tћat the system itself corrupts iпtellectuals
апd, especially, art. Diтect re-..vards from tће regime
may Ье abolisћed, just as ceпsorsblp may Ье, but tће spii·it of
coпuption апd oppтessioп remains.
This spblt is estaЬlisћed апd stimulated Ьу party-bureaucratic
moпopolism over materials and miпd. The iпtellectual
ћаs поwћеrе to tur'Il except to>vard tћis po1ver, whether for
ideas or for profit. Е;теп tћough tbls po1ver may поt Ье directly
tће goverпmeпt's, it exteпds tћrougћ all estaЬlisћments апd
o1·gaпizations. In the final analysis it. makes the decisions.
It is very irnpoitant to tће at·tist tћat тestraint апd centralism
Ье exercised as little as possiЬle, еvеп thougћ tће essence of
his social positioп is поt tће1·еЬу сћапgеd. Because of this, it
is mucћ easie1· for ћim to 1vшk and liYe iп Yugoslavia tћап iп
tће U.S.S.R.
Ан oppressed humaп miпd is forced to submit to corruptioп.
lf оне seeks to kno>v >vћу for а quarter of а сепtщу tl1eтe ћаvе
Ьееп scarcely апу sigпificant >vorks, especially in literatuтe,
in tће U.S.S.R., he 1vould find tћat corruption has played as
gieat or greater а ратt tћап oppressioп in causiпg this scarcity.
Тће Communist. system persecutes, suspects, апd prods into
self-aiticism its really creative people. It offers its sycopћants

attractive "1vorking conditions" and lavish lюnorariшns, re"\
Vards, villas, vacation centers, discounts, automoЬiles, aшbassadorial
шandates, agit-prop protections, and "magnanimous
interventions." Thus, as а rule, it favors the untalented,
dependerн, and rюn-inventive. It is uпderstandaЬle that the
greatest шinds have lost their diтection, faith, and power. Suicide,
despair, alcoholisш, and debauchery, the loss of inteтпal
po1vers and integrity because the artist is foтced to lie to himself
and others-these are the most frequerн рhепошеnа in the
Coшшunist systeш ашопg those 1vho actually 1vish to, and could
It is generally thoнght that Comшнnist dictatorship practices
brutal class discriшiпation. This is not completely accнrate.
Historically, class discriminatioп declines as the revolнtion
slackens off, Ьнt ideological discriшinatioп increases. The illнsioп
that tlle proletaгiat is in po1ver is inaccнrate; so, too,
is t.he proposition that Commнпists регsеснtе someoпe Ьесанsе
ће is а boнrgeois. Their· measнres do aim шost ћarshly at tlle
шembers of the ruling classes, especially tlle boнrgeoisie. Внt
those boнrgeois "\vlю capitнlate, or r·eorient themselves, are аЬlе
to assнre for· theшselves lucrative posts and favor. vVhat is
пюrе, the secret police ofteп find аЬlе agents iп their raпks,
'Nhile t.he пе"\v po\ver-wielders fiпd them аЬlе servaпts. Опlу
those who do поt ideologically approve the Commнпist шeasнres
апd vie,vs are pнпished >Vithoнt. consider·ation as to their
class or tlleir attitнde tmvard nationalization of capitalist
Persecution of <:le 1vhicll="" and="" at="" br="" g="" is="" ocratic="" socialist="" t="" tho="">variance witll that of the ruliпg oligarchy is fiercer ап<.-1 шоrе
coшplete tћап persecнtion of tlle шost reactionary followers
of the forшer regime. This is нп<:ler br="" da="" ed="" last="" le:="" na="" sta="" t="">are less dangeroнs since they look to а past which has little
Iikelihood of тetнтning an<:l br="" g.="" reconqueri="">vVЪenever Comшнnists come to po•ver, their assaнlt. on private
O"\\тnersblp creates the illнsion that their шeasнres ате
pтimarily difected against the ownership classes for the benefit
of the "\Vorking class. Sнbseqнent events prove that their шeasures
1vете поt. taken for this ршроsе Ьнt in order t.o estaЬlish
their О\\ТП o"\vnership. Tћis шust шanifest itself predoшiпantly
as ideological rather than class discгiшiпatioп. If t.his were поt
tr·ue, if they really stroYe for actнal ownership Ьу t.he "\vor·king
masses, theп class discrimiпatioп actнally woнl<:l br="" have="" prevailed.="">The fact that ideological disпiшination prevails leads, at
fir·st sight, to tl1e conclнsioп tllat а пе"\V religioнs sect has risen,
а sect >vhich тigi<:lly and="" aterialistic="" atheistic="" br="" its="" prescriptions="" sticks="" to="">and foгciЬly imposes them оп otћers. Coшmuпists do
behave like а r·eligioнs sect еvеп thoнgh they are поt. I'eally опе.
This totalitarian i<:leology br="" certai="" es="" i="" is="" lt.="" of="" only="" t="" the="">forms of gоvешшепt апd of mvnership. For its part, the i<:leology br="">aide<:l an="" br="" creatio="" every="" i="" l="" ppor="" s="" the="" their="" ts="">way. Ideological discriшiпatioп is а conditioп for the сопtiпнаnсе
of the Coшmunist system.
It >voнld Ье "\vrong to thiпk tllat otller forms of disпimiпatioп-
тace, caste, natioпal-are •voгse thaп ideological discriшiпation.
They may seem ШОI'е Ьтнtаl to all онtжагd appearances,
but they ar·e поt as тefiпe<:l aim="" at="" br="" complete.="" or="" the="" they="">activities of society, >vhile ideological <:liso aims="" at="" br="" imination="">society as а "\Vhole, an<:l al.="" at="" br="" disc="" diyi="" i="" imination="" l="" of="" other="" types="" v="">may cшsh а humaп being physically, "\Vhile ideological
<:lis at="" atio="" br="" human="" i="" ikes="" imi="" st="" the="" thing="" tlle="">beiпg "\vhich is peгhaps most pecнliarly his О"\VП. Tyranпy over
the miпd is the most complete and most bшtal type of tyraпny;
eYery other tуrаппу begiпs and ends "\Vitll it.
On the оне hand t.he i<:leological commu="" i="" in="" inatio="" liscr="" p="">

пist systems aims at prohiЬiting other ideas; оп the other, at
imposing exclusively its O\\'ll ideas. These are t1vo most strikiпg
forms of uпbelievaЬle, total tyranny.
Thought is the most creative force. It uпcovers 1vhat is пеw.
Men can пeither live поr produce if they do поt think or coпtemplate.
Еvен though they may dепу it, Communists are
forced to accept this fact iн practice. Thus they make it. impossiЬle
for ану thought otЪer thaн their оwн to prevail.
Man may rеноuнсе much. But he must thiнk and he ћаs а
deep пееd to express his thoughts. It is profouпdly sickeнing to
Ье compel1ed to remain silent wћen thet·e is need for exp!'ession.
It is tyranny at its 1vorst to compel mеп поt to tћiпk as
they do, to compel mеп to express thoughts that ате ноt their
Тће limitatioп of freedom of tћougћt is rюt онlу ап attack
оп specific political апd social rights, but an attack on the
human being as such. Мап's imperishaЬle aspirations for freedom
of thougћt al-.;vays emerge in concrete from. If they ћаvе
not yet become аррагепt iп Commuпist systems, this does поt
mеап that tЪеу do not exist. Today they lie iп dark апd apathetic
resistaпce, and in the uпshapen hopes of the people. It
is as if totality of oppression -.;vere eтasiпg differences iп пatioпal
strata, unitiпg all people iп tће demand for freedom of tћought
апd for freedom iп geпeral.
History will pardon Communists for much, estaЬlishing tllat
they 1vere forced into many bгutal acts because of circumstaпces
and t.ће need to defend their existeпce. But the stifling of every
divergeпt thought, the exclusive monopoly over thinking for
the ршроsе of defendiпg thei!' pet'Sonal interests, will пail tће
Communists to а пoss of shame iп history.
The Aim and The Means
All revolutions апd all revolutionaries use oppressive and
uпscrupulous meaпs in abuнdance.
Hmvever, earliel" revolutioпaries 1ve1·e not as conscious of
their metћods as tће Communists ћаvе been. They 1vere unaЬie
to adapt апd use tћeir metћods to tће degree that the Commuпists
ћаvе done.
"You doп't need to pick апd сћооsе the means to use agaiпst
eпemies of tће movement .... You must punisћ rюt only tће
traitors, but also tће iпdifferent; you must punish all 1vlю а!'е
inactive iп tl1e repuЬlic, all -.;vћо do пothiпg for it."
Тћеsе -.;vords of Saiпt-Just migћt ћаvе Ьееп uttered Ьу some
Commuпist leader of today. But Saiпt-Just fluпg them out iп
the heat of tће !'evolutioп, to pr·eset·ve its destiпy. Тће Commuпists
speak tl1ese 1vords апd act accordiпg to them constantlyfrom
tће begiппing of their revolutioп uпtil they rеасћ complete
power, and еvеп iп tћeir decliпe.
Althougћ Coшmuпist. methods sшpass any of tћose of other
revolutioпaries iп raпge, duratioп, апd severity, dш-ing а revolutioп
the Commuпists ћаvе поt as а rule used all the meaпs
tћat their antagoпists used. Ho-.;vever, еvеп tћougћ tће metћods
of the Comшunists migћt ћаvе been less Ьloody, tћеу became

increasingly more inhumane the farther a;vay they got from
the revolutioп.
Like ever·y social and political movement, Commuпism must
use methods primarily suited to the iпterests and relations of
the po;vers-that-be. Other coпsiderations, iпcludiпg moral ones,
are subordiпated.
Here, ;ve are iпterested only in the methods used Ьу contemporary
Commпnism, ;vhich may, accordiпg t.o coпditioпs,
Ье mild or severe, hпman or inhumaп, but ;vhich are differeпt
from those used Ьу other political апd social movemeпts and
distinguisћ Communism from otћer movemeпts, revolutioпary
or not.
This distinction does not lie in tће fact tћat Commuпist
шetћods are perћaps Ње шost brutal опеs тесогdеd in ћistory.
It is tтue tћat brutality is their most. obvious but not tћeir
шost iпtriпsic aspect. А moveшent ;vhicћ had as its аiш tће
traпsformation of the economy апd of society Ьу шeans of
tyranny ћаd to resort to bгutal methocls. Впt all otl1er revolпtioпary
шоvешепts had and ;vaпted to use tће sаше шethods.
Yet, the fact that their tyranпy \\7as of slюгtет dш-atioп >vas the
reason tlшt they could not use all tl1ese шetlюds. In additioп,
tћeir oppressioн could поt Ье as total as tћat of tће Coшшunists,
because it саше аЬопt uпdет circпшstances \\'llicl1 did not
perшit it to Ье as total.
It would Ье еvеп less jнstifiaЬle to seek tће reasoпs for· Coшшunist
metћods in tl1e fact tћat Coшmunists lack etblcal or
шoral priпciples. Except for the fact tћat tlley аге Comшпnists,
tlley are men like all otl1ers 1vћо in relationsblps among tћeшselves
aЬide Ьу tlle шшаl pr·inciples cнstoшar·y in Ьuшаn
societies. Lack of etblcs among tlleш is not tlle r·easoп fог tћeir
шetllods but tће гesult of tlleш. In pгiпciples and in \Vords,
Coшmuпists sпbscriЬe to etblcal piecepts and ћuшапе metћods.
Тћеу belive that tћеу are "tешротатilу" foтced to resort to
soшetћiпg соntтату to their ethical vie1vs. Coшnшnists too
tblnk that it would Ье much if they did поt. ћаvе to act
coпtrary to ilieir etћical views. Iп this tlley are not much differeпt
from part~cipaпts in other· political movemeнts, except
that they Ьаvе d1vorced theшselves from humanity iп а more
permaпeпt and monstrous form.
Nuшerous features >vhich distinguish conteшporary Comшuпisш
from other movemeпts in ilie use of methods сап Ье
found. Tl1ese features ате pтedominaпtly quantitative or are
actuated Ьу varied historical conditions and Ьу the aims of
H~vvever, there is an integral featш·e of contemporary Comшuшsm
>vhich distinguishes its methods from those of other
political шovements. At first sight tbls feature mioЪt seem
similar to features of some сhштћеs in tће past. It st;ms from
tlle idealistic aims vvhich the Commппists will пsе any means
to further. Тћеsе means have become incтeasingly reckless as
the aims became пnтealizaЬle. Тће пsе of their meiliods, even
for· tlle attainment of idealistic aims, caпnot Ье justified Ьу ану
moгal principle. Tћeir пsе brands those ;vho use them as пnscrupulous
and шeгciless po;ver->vielders. Tlle former· classes,
parties, апd forms of O\v'Тleгsblp no longeг exist or have Ьееп
incapacitated, yet methods have поt been changed essentially.
Indeed, these шethods are just no\v achieving tlleir fullmeasure
of inhumanity.
As the ne\v exploiting class climbs to pmver, it tries to
justify its пon-idealistic metlюds Ьу invokiпg its idealistic aims.
Tlle inlшmanity of Staliп's methods теасћеd its Q"I"eatest ћeio-ht
ё) "' wћеп he built а "socialist society." Весапsе the new class must
sho\v that its interests are exclusively and ideally the aim of
society and Ьесапsе it must maintain intellectual and every
otheт type of monopoly, tће ne\v class mпst proclaim tћat the
шetћods it пses ате not iшpoтtant. ТЪе end is iшpoгtant,
shoпt its representatives, eveгythiпg else is tiifling. \Nћat is
impoitant is that vve no\v "have" socialism. So do tlle Communists
jпstify tyтanny, baseness, апd стiше.
Of course, the end must Ье assшed Ьу special iпstruments

Ьу the party. It becomes something dominant and suprem~ u~to
itself like the Church in the Middle Ages. То quote D1etr1ch
von Nie heim, nominal Bishop of V erden, '\\rriting i~ 1411:
"Wheп its existence is threatened, the church 1s freed of
mOI·al edicts. Unity as an aim Ьlesses all means: perfidy, treachery,
tyranny, simony, prisons, апd death. For eYeiy. holy order
exists because of the aims of society, and personal1ty must Ье
sacrificed to the geпeral good."
These '\Vords, too, sound as if they had been uttered Ьу some
contemporary Communist.
There is much of the feudal and faпatic in the dogmatism
of contemporary Commuпism. But neither are. we liviпg in
the Middle Aaes nor is contemporary Commuшsm а church.
The empћasis 0оп ideological and other moпopolism опlу s~ems
to make coпtemporary Commuпism similar to the medleYal
Сћurсћ· tће esseпce of еасћ is tlifferent. Тће Clшrch was опlу
partly ~'\vпer and gover'Ilor·; iп the most extr·eme cases, it
aspired to perpetuate а given social system tћrough _absolute
contтol of tће mind. Тће churcћes persecuted ћeretlcs, even
for doQ"ffiatic reasons '\Vћich 1ver·e not al1vays called for Ьу
direct ;ractical needs. As tће Church repтesented i_t, it IV~s
attemptiпg to saye siпful, heгetical souls Ьу de~ti·_oyшg the1r
bodies. All earthly meaпs 1ver·e consideied perш1ss1Ьle for the
purpose of attainiпg the heavenly kin?dom. .
But tће Commнnists first of all deslie phys1cal or state authority.
Iпtellectual сопtгоl апd peгsecutioп exercised ~or dogmatic
reasoпs are опlу auxiliary aids fот stтeпgthenшg tће
po'\ver of tће state. Uпlike tће Cћurch, Commuпism is поt tће
support of tће system Ьнt its embodimeпt.
The пе>v class did поt aiise sнddeпly, Ьнt 1vas developed from
а revolнtioпю·y to ап o>vпersћip and r·eactioпary groнp. Its
metћods too, еvеп tћонgћ tћеу seemed the same, сћапgеd iп
esseпce fгom revolutioпar·y опеs to tyraппical опеs, from pтotective
to despotic ones.
Comrпuпist rпetћods 1vill iп esseпce Ье arпoral апd uп-
1 i '1,
scrupulous, еvеп, '\Vhen tћеу are especially severe in form.
Because it is coшpletely totalitarian, Coшrпunist rule cannot.
allow for шuсћ сћоiсе of шeans. And Cornпшnists are incapaЬle
of rerюunciпg tће essential tћing-the lack of clюice of
rпeans-because of the fact that tћеу want to retaiп absolute
po'\ver апd their о>vп egotistical interests.
Even if they did not so '\vish, Cornrnunists шust Ье both
o'\vпers апd despots and rnust utilize шапу rпeans for tћat purpose.
In spite of апу happy tћeories ог good inclinatioпs they
шight haYe, the systerп itself drives tћеш to tће utilization of
any rпeans. Iн case of апу urgeпcy, they find thernselves the
шoral and intellectual chaшpions апd the actual users of any
rпeans availahle.

Corпmunists speak of "Comrпuпist morale," "the new Socialist
mап," and sirnilar concepts as if tћеу were speaking of
some higћer etћical categories. These hazy concepts ћаvе опlу
one practical шeaning-the ceшeпting of Comшunist raпks and
opposition to foreign iпflueпce. As act.ual ethical categories,
lю1vever-, they do not exist.
Since no special Communist etblcs nor а Socialist Man can
emer·ge, the cast.e spirit of the Communists, and special moral
and otћer concepts, which they пurse arпong tћemselves, are
are all tће more strongly developed. These are not absolute
principles, but changing moral staпdards. They are embedded
iн the Communist hierarchical system in which almost aпything
is perшitted at. the top-the upper circles-'\vћile the sаше
things are condeпшed if they are practiced at lower echelonsthe
lower circles.
This caste spirit and t.hese morals, changeahle and incomplete,
ћаvе undergone а long апd varied development, and
have even often been the stimulus for the further development

of the ne\v class. The end result of this developrnent has been
the creation of special sets of rnoral standards for variou~ castes,
always subordinated to the practical needs of tће ol1garchy.
The forrnation of these caste rnorals roughly coпesponds t.o the
rise of the ne\V class and is identical with its abandonrnent of
hurnaнe, really ethical standards.
These pr·opositioнs require detail~d exposition.
Like all other aspects of Cornrnuшsrn, caste rnor-als developed
frorn revolutioпary morals. At first, in spite of the fact that
they "rere а part of ап isolated movement, tl1ese morals \vere
proclaimed as beiпg more humane than those ~f ану sect or
caste. But а Commuнist movement al\vays begшs as опе of
hio-hest idealism and most selfless sacrifice, attractiпg into its
ra~ks the most gifted, tће bravest, and even the most noЬle
intellects of tће паtiоп.
Tћis statement, just as most of tће others made here, relates
to countries iп \vhicћ Communism Ьаs developed for tће most
part because of national conditioпs, and :vhere it has attai~ed
full pmver (Russia, Yugoslavia, апd Сћш~) . Ho\vever, ":1th
some nюdificatioпs this statement also applles to Commuшsm
in other couпtries.
EveyY\vhere, Communism begins as an aspiratioп towaтd а
beautiful ideal society. As sucћ, it attracts and iпspires rneп
of ћiоЪ moral standards and of otћer ћigћ distinction. But
~ .
since Comnшпism is also an iпterпatioпal rnovernent, 1t turns,
like а sunflo\ver to the sun, to tће movement whicћ is strongest
-until no\v piimarily in tће U.S.S.R. Consequeпtly, even tће
Communists of otћer countries \vћeie they are not iп power
rapidly lose tће featuтes tћеу ћаd iп tће begiппing апd take
on those of tће po\ver-\vielding Commuнisrn. As а r·esult, tће
Comrnunist leadeis in the West, and in оtћет places, ћаvе accustorned
tћernselves to play as easily witћ tће tтuth and ethical
pr·iпciples as tће Comrnuпists in the U.S.S.R. Еvету Comrnuпist
movement at fil'St also l1as high rnoral featuies \Vhich isolated
iпdividuals rnay retain even longer апd which provoke cтises
\vheн leaders iпitiate amoral proceedings апd arЬitraтy tuтпabouts.
HistOiy does rюt. Ьаvе rnany movemeпts that, like Commuпism,
Ьеgап tћeir clirnb "\Vith such high moral prinicples
and \Vith such devoted, eпtћusiastic, апd clever fighters, attacћed
t.o each otћer not only Ьу ideas and suffering, but also Ьу
selfless love, comradesћip, solidarity, апd tћat \Varrn and direct
sincerity that сап Ье produced only Ьу battles iп \Vhich men а!'е
doomed eitћel' to \Vin or die. Cooperative efforts, tћougћts, and
desires; еvеп the nюst irнeпse effort to attain the same method
of thinking анd feeliнg, tће fiнdiпg of personal ћappiness and
the buildiпg of iпdividuality tћrough complete devotioп to
tће party апd workers' collective; enthusiastic sacrificing fот
otheтs; сате апd pтotectioн for tће youнg, анd teнder respect
for the old-these are the ideals of true Comrnunists \vћен tће
moverneпt is iн its inceptioн анd still truly Comrnuпist.
Commuнist womaн too is rnore thaн а comтade or· co-figћ
It сан нever Ье forgotteн tћat she, он eнt.eriнg tће movemeнt,
decided to sacrifice all-tћe happiness of Ьоtћ love анd of
motћerћood. Betweeн шен анd -.;vошен iн the movemeпt, а
сlеан, шodest анd wатш r·elatioпship is foster·ed: а relationship
iн which соштаdеlу сате Ьаs Ьесоrне sexless passioп. Loyalty,
nшtual aid, fraнkпess about еvен tће шost iнtimate tћougћtsthese
ате geнe!'ally the ideals of true, ideal Comrnuнists.
This is tше онlу while tће rnoveшeпt is youпg, Ьеfоте it has
tasted the fruits of power.
Тће road to tће attaiнmeпt of these ideals is vету long анd
difficult. Coшrnuнists анd Comrnuнist rnovemeпts ате forшed
fтош varied social foтces анd centeтs. Iнternal hornogeпeity is
поt attaiнed overnight, but thтough the fieтce battles of vaтied
groups and fractioпs. If coнditioпs ате favoraЬle, the group
от fractioн whicћ wiпs the battle is the оне which has Ьеен
rnost аwате of tће advaнce towaтd Coшmuнisrn апd \Vћiсћ.
wћеп taking оvет роwет, is also the rnost moтal. Thтougt\
rnoтal crises, tћrough political iнtтigues апd iпsiнuatioнs, шu

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