Wednesday, June 6, 2012



中庸 (zhōngyōng) is one of four classic books of Chinese literature . Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200) in the Song dynasty selected as the basis for Chinese philosophy and Confucianism. Zhõngyõng was created by Zisi   (孔伋 子思 483-402), Confucius’ grandson, and took root in chapter 31; of Confucius’s Work entitled 禮記 The Book of Rites . 

This work consisted of two parts:
 -The main part: (From chapter1 to chapter 20): Confucius’ teachings.
 -The subordinate part (From chapter 21st to 33rd):Zisi ‘s opinions.

 In Chinese,中 means middle, stable, not being inclined. At the beginning of the book, Zhu Xi explained that 中zhōng is not being inclined, 庸 yōng is not variable. Zhōngyōng is the middle path, the right way, and the scientific law of our world. Not being inclined means right and middle also means not being extreme (1). 

In Chinese, 道 means religion, direction; way; method; road; path; principle;truth; reason.  Confucius  said:

 I know we cannot go on our path because the wise men are excessive, while the stupid persons insufficient Thus, excessiveness and insufficiency are two extremes we must avoid, and Zhõngyõng means the moderation. (2)

Zhõngyõng also the doctrine of ’Mean" which emphasizes moderation is that people can not leave the moment, but to implement the "golden mean", must also respect the gift of nature, acquired through learning.

 Confucius said: Zhōngyōng is the  great origin, and the great path of humankind. Attaining Zhõngyõng, our world will be peaceful, and every thing developed.(3)

According to Confucius, it is very difficult to follow the Middle path (4) . Only the gentlemen could practice doctrine of Mean when the bad guys opposed it (5). While following doctrine of Moderation, what do we do?.
1. Firstly, we must do good. King Shun: In childhood ,his mother died.Shun usually obey their parents, concerned about his little brother, he was a wiser man, do good, following moderation (6)

 2-Yen Hui : He was a good follow, almost moderate, adhering to the Sincerit .

Secondly,  the gentlemen must live happily in any situation (7)

 Thirdly, the gentlemen must practice the humanity and fulfill duty to everybody in their family and community. (8) They also must show respect to their  parents, sympathy to their  wife and children, and kindness to brothers and friends (9) . 

 In a word, Buddha’s Middle Path and Confucius’ Moderation are the same. Both doctrines lead people to the right way, the morality and  keep off the extremes. 

Chapter X


A painting or a song is the harmony of the colors or the sounds. So is our world. The Middle path was the common view of the Buddha and Confucius . It is the method to build a harmonious and peaceful society. The Buddha gave his followers an example of a bow and a bird. Laozi dreamed of a harmonious world :

" Being and nothing give birth to one another,
Hard and easy are mutually formed,
Long and short exist from a contrast
High and low complement each other,
Music and voice are harmonize with each other,
Front and back follow one another.
前後相隨.(Tao Te Ching. chapter 2)

 Extremism contrast with with middle path, rightness, peace and development. it will lead people to failure and unhappiness. In our world, there are many extremist theories and actions in politics, religion, education and economy.
Some students focused on science and neglected morality, therefore Rabelais criticized this education : « Science sans conscience n'est que ruine de l'âme ».Other students preferred the development of mind than the development of body,so Latin scholar said , "Mens sane in corpore sana." (A healthy mind in a healthy body)."
In many countries, people consisted of every bodies without discrimination for religion, race, gender or social class when the others emphasized the class struggle. This theory has caused the fatal war in our world nearly a century. In our world, some theorists praised the role of cultivators or the traders in society, when other philosophers highlighted the workers in the revolution. They also liked the manual labors and disliked the intellectual workers. In some countries, the private property is forbidden. All of those theories are partial and caused damages to people and society.

These theories and actions are false and easily changed from this extreme to  other extreme. Some peoples criticized the individualistic ideology, the  capitalism exploiting, and the   monarchy's hereditary but in fact they practiced  personality cult, they became the red capitalists, and followed  the monarchy hereditary.

These theories and actions are contrary to the humanity,  science and democracy therefore  people revolted against the brutal authorities.  Before the protest of people, the dictators tried  to kill,  imprison  and terrorize people. Extremism is character of brutal regime and the tyrants.
Middle path is the best way to build the nation and the world on the humanity, democracy,and freedom.The Middle path is the way to peace and development.

[1]不 偏 之 謂 中; 不 易 之 謂 庸; 中 者 天 下 之 正 道, 庸 者 天 下 之 定 理.
  [2] : , . ;
[3] , . , . , , . (chapter 4)
[4] ! ,  (Ch.3)
[5] ; . , ; , . (ch.2)
[6] ( ! , . . ,
[7] ( ; , ,
[8] ; . , . , . , . , . . , ; , .(Ch.14)
[9] - , , ; , . : , ; , ; , . : (ch.15)

No comments: