Tuesday, November 18, 2008



History of education in China
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The history of education in China began with the birth of Chinese civilization. The nobles often set up the educational establishments for their offspring. The Shang Hsiang was a legendary school to teach the youth nobles. It may have been the origin of education in China.
• 1 Zhou Dynasty
• 2 Hundred Schools of Thought
• 3 The Setback of Education
• 4 Confucianism as the education doctrine
• 5 Properties of local schools
• 6 The introduction of modern education
• 7 See also

[edit] Zhou Dynasty
The government founded five national schools to educate Six Arts of junior nobles.
[edit] Hundred Schools of Thought
At that times, numerous different schools enrolled the students. The most famous one was the Confucianism and its leader Confucius was seen as the founder of education for the masses. One of his saying was Provide education for all people without discrimination (Chinese:有教无类). Another was Teach according to the student's ability (Chinese: 因材施教).
The different schools were often organized into political entities to gain social influence.
[edit] The Setback of Education
Qin Shi Huang favored Legalism (Chinese philosophy),and regarded others useless,so he carried out burning of books and burying of scholars. It was one major setback for Chinese education.
[edit] Confucianism as the education doctrine
Emperor Wu of Han favored Confucianism and made it as the national educational doctrine.The Taixue was setup to turn out civil servant for the empire. Imperial examination began at 605, and the educational system for Chinese Empire was finaled modeled until the abolishment in 1905, and replaced by modern Western Education.
Meanwhile art school Pear Garden appeared in early 8th century, and in 1178 national military school Wu Xue (zh:武学) was set up.
[edit] Properties of local schools
Imperial examination required the competitors to pass their local cutting score before the final examination in capitol. So the private school prevailed. White Deer Grotto Academy and Donglin Academy were their models.
The invention of Paper and Movable type greatly boosted the educational industry.
[edit] The introduction of modern education
Following the defeat of the Chinese empire in the Opium Wars, modern western education was eagerly sought out in the domains of foreign languages, national defence, and new techniques of industrial production. The Capital Foreign Language House (zh:京师同文馆) was set up in 1862. Countless overseas students were sent by the government or by their families to Europe, USA, and Japan. In the late 19th century, several modern universities were founded, such as Peking University and Jiaotong University.
Shang Hsiang
Shang Xiang (Chinese: 上庠; pinyin: shàng xiáng; Wade-Giles: shang hsiang), was a school founded in Youyu (有虞) period in China. Shun (舜, 2257 BC–2208 BC), the king of the State of Youyu, founded two schools, one was Shang Xiang (shang(上), means up, high), and the other one was Xia Xiang (下庠, xia (下) means down, low) 1,2. Shang Xiang was a place to educate noble youth. Teachers at Shang Xiang were generally erudite, elder and noble persons. Shang Xiang
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The original meaning of Xiang (庠) may be provide for (養) 3. So Xiang (including Shang Xiang and Xia Xiang) was initially a place to provide for the aged persons and then became a place for teaching.
Shang Xiang may be the origination of higher education institute of Guo Xue (國學, National School, or Imperial School, the nation's supreme school) in China. Cheng Jun (成均) was another ancient institution with educational function before Xia Dynasty as recorded in literature. The imperial school was named Taixue (太學) in Han Dynasty. From Sui Dynasty to Qing Dynasty it was named Guozijian (國子監).
Shang Xiang was also one of the five national schools in the capital city in Zhou Dynasty. The other four were: Pi Yong (闢雍), Dong Xu (東序), Gu Zong (瞽宗) and Cheng Jun (成均). Pi Yong was central school, located in central position and was an imperial school. Dong Xu was east school, Cheng Jun was south school, Gu Zong was west school and Shang Xiang was north school. These four schools were for seigneurs. The schools in Zhou Dynasty mainly taught six skills (or six arts, 六藝): Li (禮, convenance), Yue (樂, music), She (射, archery), Yu (禦, charioteering), Shu (書, literature), Shu (數, maths).
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shang_Xiang"
Categories: Chinese mythology | Education in China



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