Wednesday, March 25, 2009

TRẦN XUÂN NINH

http://hanoi.not.free.fr/camps_de_concentration_ou_de_reeducation.htm

Camps de concentration ou de rééducation (cai tao hoc tâp, cai tao tâp trung)


Historiens, sociologues et psychologues nous expliqueront peut-être un jour, quel rôle a pu jouer dans l’affrontement entre démocratie et totalitarisme communiste cette accumulation de souffrances. Ils nous diront quelle alternative s’offrait aux populations prises en tenaille entre l ‘appareil répressif et le « réalisme » des démocraties, qui dans leurs rapports avec les régimes communistes ont toujours soutenu les Etats contre la société civile, les gouvernements contre les peuples.
Accounts of imprisonment and reeducation, www.yale.edu/seas/bibliography/chapters/chap9.htm#discussion
Amnesty international, Viêt-Nam les droits de l’homme, édition annuelle
Aurora Foundation. Violations of Human Rights in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. California: Atherton, 1989, www.vietworld/Aurora/p39.html
Bich Huyên, The trail I will never forget, Lôi cu chang sao quên
Bùi Ngoc Tân, Chuyên kê nam 2000, Thòi moi Toronto Canada 2000
Bùi-Xuân-Luong, Peter, South Vietnamese officer prisoners of war: Their resilience and acculturation experiences in prison and in the United States, PhD, The Fielding institute, 171 pages, AAT 9963250
Buu Lich, Tâp-Trung Hoc-Tâp Cai-Tao, http://www.lmvntd.org/vndc0499/bai06.htm
Chu Quan, Hà-Thúc Sinh, Hoàng-Ngoc Thanh-Dung, Nguyên Mông Giác, Nguyên Ngoc Ngan, Nguyên Ngoc Thuân, Nhât Tiên, Tuong Nang Tiên, Võ Hoàng+, Võ Ky Ðiên, To be made over, edited and translated by Huynh Sanh Thông, Yale council on Southeast Asia, New Haven 1988
Nguyên Ngoc Ngan, My communist Warden and I
Tuong Nang Tiên, Communism and Guigoz-Canism
Vo Ky Ðiên, Brother Ten
Duong Thanh, Vuot dia-nguc
Duong Viêt Ðiên, Trai Ái-Tu và Binh-Ðiên, Thang mõ 1993
Duyên Anh Vu Mông Long†, Trai tâp-trung, Xuân thu 1988
Ðang Chi Bình, Thép den, 1, 2, 3
Ðinh Ngoc Quê Peter (father rev. CSsR), A Catholic Priest In The Communist Prison (1975 - 1988), e-book 2000, http://www.geocities.com/dnqbook/en/
Do, C.N., Vietnamese Former Detainees in the United States: Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Current Needs. MSW Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, 1992
Do Van Peter, The reeducation camp story of a U.S. resident and south vietnamese veteran : Ngo Van Diem, Review of vietnamese studies 2004-05, http://www.hmongstudies.org/PeterVanDoAReeducationCampStory.pdf
Ðoàn Van Toai, Le Goulag vietnamien, Robert Laffont Paris 1979
Denney Stephen, Human rights and daily life in Viêtnam, Report prepared for the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, March 25, 1990, http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~sdenney/SRV-Discrimination-1990
Denney Stephen and Sagan Ginetta, Re-education in unliberated Viêtnam : loneliness, suffering and death, the Indochina newsletter October-November 1982, http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~sdenney/Vietnam-Reeducation-Camps-1982
Desbarats, Jacqueline, and Karl D. Jackson. "Vietnam 1975-1982: The Cruel Peace," Washington Quarterly, 8, No. 4, Fall 1985, 169-82.
Desbarats Jacqueline & Jackson Karl D., Political violence in Viêtnam, the black side of liberation, Indochina Report n° 6, Singapour 1986
Lin Lien, McInnes Keith MS, Mollica Richard F, Pham Thang, Murphy Elisabeth, Smith Fawzi Mary Christine, . The dose-effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group. J Nerv Ment Dis 1998 Sep;186(9):543-53, Williams & Wilkins
Hà Thúc Sinh Pham Vinh Xuân, Ðai-hoc máu, Nhân van 1985
Hoàng Hai Thuy Duong Trong Hai, Nhung tên biêt-kich câm bút, Làng Van 2000, http://members.tripod.com/dansinh/
Hoàng Liên Nguyên Van Ðai, Ánh-sáng và bóng tôi, Van nghê 1990
Hoàng Minh Chinh, Thu ngo cua công-dân Hoàng Minh Chinh 27.8.1993
Huynh Ba Xuân, Oublié 23 ans dans les Goulags Viêt-Minh 1953 - 1976, L'Harmattan 2004
Huynh Van Chinh, Lê Nguyên Binh, Metzner Edward P., Trân Van Phuc, Reeducation in Postwar Vietnam : Personal Postscripts to Peace, Number Seventy-five : Texas A&M University Military History Series, 2001, 160 pp
Kiêu Duy Vinh, http://members.tripod.com/dansinh/
Kotek Joël, Rigoulot Pierre, Siècle des camps : détention, concentration, extermination : cent ans de mal radical, Lattès 2000
Lê Dinh Châu, Chiên-tuyên tu-do ven sông Hông
Lê Huu Tri, Prisoner of the word (1975 - 1981) : A Memoir of the Vietnamese Reeducation Camps, Black Heron Press, Seattle 2001, 350 pp
Lin Lien, McInnes Keith MS, Mollica Richard F, Pham Thang, Murphy Elisabeth, Smith Fawzi Mary Christine, . The dose-effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group. J Nerv Ment Dis 1998 Sep;186(9):543-53, Williams & Wilkins
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine in Vietnamese ex-political detainees newly arrived into the United States a) the prevalence of torture and psychiatric symptoms and b) the dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and the psychiatric symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. The study population included Vietnamese ex-political detainees (N = 51) and a comparison group (N = 22). All respondents received culturally validated instruments with known psychometric properties including Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The ex-political detainees, in contrast to the comparison group, had experienced more torture events (12.2 SD = 4.2 vs. 2.6 SD = 3.1) and had higher rates of PTSD (90% vs. 79%) and depression (49% vs. 15%). Dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and psychiatric symptoms were positive with the PTSD subcategory of "increased arousal" revealing the strongest association. These findings provide evidence that torture is associated with psychiatric morbidity in Vietnamese refugees. The demonstration of significant dose-effect responses supports the hypothesis that torture is a major risk factor in the etiology of major depression and PTSD. The generalizability of these results to other torture survivor groups is unknown. The interaction between torture and other pre- and post-migration risk factors over time in different cultural settings still needs to be examined.
Lin L., Mollica R.F., Murphy E., Pham T., Poole C., Smith Fawzi M.C., The validity of screening for post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression among Vietnamese former political prisoners, Acta psychiatrica scandinavica 1997 : 95 : 87 - 93
Lu Van Thanh. The Inviting Call of Wandering Souls: Memoir of an ARVN Liaison Officer to the United States Forces in Vietnam Who Was Imprisoned in Communist Re-eduction Camps and Then Escaped. Jefferson, N.C. :McFarland, 1997
Lucien Trong, Enfer rouge mon amour, Seuil 1980
Ly Ba Hy, Mes 4584 jours de rééducation au Viêt-Nam, Anai Paris 1994
Lý Tòng Bá, Hôi-ký 25 nam khói lua
Margolin Jean-Louis, Viêtnam : les impasses d’un communisme de guerre, p 617 – 628, Robert Laffont 1997, traduit en vietnamien par Hô Van Ðông
Matson, Arthur William, III, Coping, culture, and meaning in the reeducation camp experience (Vietnam), PsyD, Antioch university / New England graduate school, 2001, 148 pages, AAT 3011870
Nguyên Chi Thiên, Hoa dia-nguc 1, 2, http://members.tripod.com/dansinh/
-Fleurs de l’enfer, Institut de l’Asie du Sud Est 2000
-Flowers from Hell, Lac Viêt, Series No. 1 New Haven, CT: Yale Council on SEA Studies, 1984
-Hoa Lò, Fournaise, nouvelles, 2000
-Viêt Nam : un renouveau en trompe-l’oeil, Politique Internationale (n° 79 – printemps 1988)
- Autobiography, http://www.vietnamlit.org/nguyenchithien/autobiography.html
- Deville Michel avec Béart Emmanuelle. Pour Nguyên Chi Thiên, série Ecrire contre l'oubli Against oblivion, 1991. Court métrage couleur. Durée : 03 mn 34 s
Nguyên Chi Thiêp, Trai kiên giam, Sông thu 1992
Nguyên Ðai Tuong, Nguyên Quôc Viêt, Nguyên Thiêu Chinh, Nguyên Tri Van, Pham Vinh Xuân, Red files, Fifty years of violations of Human Rights in Communist Vietnam, 1945-1995, e-book, http://www.geocities.com/suthatcsvn/index.html,
Chapter II : The "northernization" of South Viêtnam, The Reeducation, The Appropriation of Private Industry and Business Enterprise, The Mass Arrest of Journalists, Writers, Artists, and Intellectuals, The Mass Arrest of Religion Dignitaries and Followers
Chapter VIII : Life in reeducation camps and prisons, Statistics on Deaths at Camps, Prisons and Camps, Camp Measures, Alimentary Deficiency, Food Rations, Labor Exploitation, Health Care -- Medical Treatment, Illness, Punishment, Separate Confinement, Mental Torture, Humiliation, Deaths, Executions, Revenge on the Prisoner, Terms of Detention, Correspondence, Currency Exchange, Visits, Protest at Camp, Under the Administrative Detention, Political and Social Discrimination, Requests, Remarks, Recommendations
Nguyên Ðuc Sy, Nhung buoc chân tù (tuc Bác-si bât dac di), Chánh Trung 1989
Nguyên Ðuong Tinh Truc Cu, Tim lai di vang, tome 2 p. 241 - 317, autoédition 1999
Nguyên Huu Lê (linh-muc), Tôi phai sông, autoédition 2003
Nguyên Thanh Nga, Ðoa hông gai
Nguyên Thanh Ty, Trong lao-tù công-san, Trai Da Bàn & A.30, 2005
Nguyên Van Hùng, Vùng dât nguc tù, Thoi Luân 1988
Nguyen, W.H. Psychological Well-Being of the Former Vietnamese Political Prisoner in the United States. PhD Dissertation, The University of Texas at Arlington., 1994
Nguyên Xuân Phong, Hope and Vanquished Reality. New York: Center for a Science of Hope/Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2001. 374 pp.
Observatoire International des Prisons OIP (International Prisons Watch IPW), Lyon et Paris 1997, http://www.oip.org
Pham Bá Hoa, Ðôi dòng ghi nho, Ngày nay
Pham Quang Giai, Trai cải-tạo, Houston
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-, Lost years : My 1,632 days in vietnamese reeducation camps. Trans. by Nguyên Phuc. Indochina Research Monograph Series of the Institute of East Asian Studies. Berkeley: University of California, 1988
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Following is a short history on each of the 13 POW Camps in North Vietnam :ALCATRAZ The Alcatraz POW Camp, located in North Central Hanoi, became operational in October 1967, when 12 prisoners captured in North Vietnam were moved into this facility. These men were either high ranking POWs or POWs known to the North Vietnamese as "troublemakers". In December 1969 the camp was closed, except for a six week period in the summer of 1970 when one prisoner captured in South Vietnam was held at this location prior to his release in August 1970.
BRIARPATCH The Briarpatch POW Camp, located 33 miles west-northwest of Hanoi, was opened in September 1965, but within one week it was closed, reportedly because of U.S. bombing in the area. It was reopened in December 1965 and was used until February 1967, when its POW population was moved. It was reopened a second time in February 1971 to hold a small group of POWs captured outside of North Vietnam. Briarpatch finally closed its gates in July 1971, when the last group of POWs was moved back to the Hanoi area.
CAMP FAITH The Camp Faith POW Camp, located nine miles west of Hanoi, became operational in July 1970, when a major consolidation of U.S. prisoners began. Small and medium sized POW camps holding Americans captured in North Vietnam were closed, and many POWs were regrouped at Camp Faith. This was the first time the North Vietnamese allowed the POWs to associate in large numbers. A considerable improvement in treatment occurred at Camp Faith. At its peak, the POW population of Camp Faith was approximately 220 men. Three days after the Son Tay rescue effort, Camp Faith's U.S. POW population was moved to the Hoa Lo Prison in Hanoi.
DIRTY BIRD Beginning in June 1967, several locations in the immediate vicinity of the Hanoi Thermal Power Plant (TPP), were used for the detention of U.S. POWs. Approximately 30 POWs captured in North Vietnam were held in the TPP area at the Dirty Bird Camp in a probable attempt to prevent the bombing of the Power Plant. In October 1967, all prisoners held in Dirty Bird were removed to regular POW camps. It was never again used for the detention of U.S. POWs. Following is a short history on each of the 13 POW Camps in North Vietnam
DOGPATCH The Dogpatch POW Camp, located 105 miles north-northeast of Hanoi, became operational in May 1972, when 220 U.S. POWs captured in North Vietnam were transferred from Hao Lo to this detention facility. The reason for this move was probably to disrupt the U.S. POW organization which was extremely strong at Hoa Lo. The camp was closed in January, 1973, when the prisoners were returned to Hoa Lo for repatriation.
FARNSWORTH The Farnsworth POW Camp, located 18 miles southwest of Hanoi, became operational in August 1968, when 28 U.S. POWs captured outside North Vietnam were moved to this location. Over the next two years, several groups of U.S. POWs captured outside of North Vietnam, were brought to this detention installation. In a reaction to the Son Tay rescue effort, Farnsworth's U.S. POW population was transferred to the Plantation POW Camp in Hanoi, in November 1970.
HOA LO (HANOI HILTON The Hoa Lo POW Camp, located in downtown Hanoi, became operational in August 1964, with the capture of L-CDR E. Alvarez, U.S. Navy. The detention facility was used continuously since that time as a processing point for captured U.S. personnel and as a camp of permanent detention. All acknowledged U.S. POWs captured in North Vietnam were moved into Hoa Lo in November and December 1970, after the Son Tay rescue attempt. The camp was the staging/collection point for the release of the first and second increments of U.S. POWs captured in North Vietnam and for the release of all U.S. POWs moved from South Vietnam and Laos.
MOUNTAIN CAMP The Mountain Camp/Retreat located 40 miles northwest of Hanoi became operational in December 1971, when one prisoner from Hoa Lo and eight prisoners from Skidrow were moved to this location. This camp was used until January 1973 when its POW population was permanently moved to Hanoi for repatriation.
PLANTATION The Plantation POW Camp, located in northeast Hanoi, became operational in June 1967. This installation became a "showplace" for U.S. POWs captured in North Vietnam. Numerous films, still photography and interviews of U.S. POWs were staged at the Plantation. The camp remained open until July 1970, when a major consolidation of U.S. POWs occurred. From July to November 1970, no U.S. POWs were held at the camp. In November 1970, in a reaction to the Son Tay rescue effort, the North Vietnamese moved the majority of U.S. POWs captured outside North Vietnam to the Plantation POW Camp. The camp remained open after this movement. In January 1973, the camp's existing population was moved to Hoa Lo, and the Plantation became the staging/collection point for the release of the third increment of POWs captured in North Vietnam. Following is a short history on each of the 13 POW Camps in North Vietnam
ROCKPILE The Rockpile POW Camp, located 32 miles south of Hanoi, became operational in June 1971 when 14 American and foreign POWs captured outside North Vietnam, were moved from the Skidrow POW Camp to this facility. This installation ceased to function as a POW detention installation in February 1973, when its POW population was moved to Hanoi for repatriation. SKIDROW The Skidrow POW Camp, located 6 miles southwest of Hanoi, became operational as a U.S. POW detention facility in July 1968, when U.S. civilian and military prisoners captured outside North Vietnam were moved to this installation. In March 1971, 36 prisoners captured in North Vietnam were moved from Hoa Lo to this facility because the North Vietnamese considered them "troublemakers". However, prior to the arrival of these prisoners, the personnel captured outside North Vietnam were transferred to another section of Skidrow to prevent communications between the two groups. In June 1971, 14 of the civilian POWs captured outside North Vietnam were moved from Skidrow to the Rockpile POW Camp. Due to the threat of floods at Skidrow, the "troublemakers" were transferred to Hoa Lo Prison in July and August 1971. In early September, 21 POWs were moved from Hoa Lo to Skidrow, where they remained until November 1971, when they were again returned to Hoa Lo. A small group of U.S. POWs were moved from Hoa Lo to Skidrow in December 1971, for two weeks and then were returned to Hoa Lo. At this time, the remaining prisoners captured outside North Vietnam were moved from Skidrow to the Mountain Camp, north of Hanoi. In December 1971, Skidrow ceased to function as a detention facility for U.S. POWs.
SON TAY/CAMP HOPE The Son Tay POW Camp became operational in May 1968, when twenty U.S. POWs captured in North Vietnam were moved to the camp. Two subsequent groups of prisoners were moved to this installation, bringing the total prisoner population to 55 men. In a routine move on 14 July 1970, the entire camp population was moved to the Camp Faith POW Camp. This move was the beginning of a major regroupment of U.S. POWs, which occurred in the summer of 1970. Following is a short history of the 13 POW Camps in North Vietnam
ZOO The Zoo POW Camp, located in the southwest suburbs of Hanoi, became operational in September 1965, and remained open until December 1970, when all POWs were transferred to Hoa Lo. The Zoo POW Camp was used for two short periods during 1971, when two men captured in Laos were detained temporarily there, before moving to the Rockpile POW Camp. In September 1971, the Zoo was reactivated on a more permanent basis and used primarily to hold U.S. POWs captured after December 1971. It replaced the Plantation POW Camp as a "showplace", and remained the "showplace" throughout 1972. The Zoo as a "showplace" was similar in function to the Plantation. Films showing U.S. POWs playing basketball, volleyball and preparing for Christmas, were staged and used for external consumption only. The Zoo was used as the staging/collection point for the repatriation of the fourth and final increment of POWs captured in North Vietnam.
A synopsis of the information provided in the preceding paragraphs is provided below:
ALCATRAZ
BRIARPATCH
CAMP FAITHCAMP HOPE (Son Tay)DIRTY BIRDDOGPATCHFARNSWORTHHANOI HILTON (Hoa Lo)MOUNTAIN CAMPPLANTATION
ROCKPILESKIDROW
ZOO
North Central Hanoi
33 Miles WNW of Hanoi
9 Miles West of Hanoi22 Miles WNW of HanoiNorthern Hanoi105 Miles NNE of Hanoi18 Miles SW of HanoiCentral Hanoi40 Miles NW of HanoiNortheast Hanoi
32 Miles South of Hanoi6 Miles SW of Hanoi
SW suburb of Hanoi
25 Oct. 67 - 9 Dec. 691 Jul. 70 - 17 Aug. 7013 Sep. 65 - 20 Sep. 651 Dec. 65 - 2 Feb. 675 Feb. 75 - 9 Jul. 7114 Jul. 70 - 24 Nov. 7023 May 68 - 14 Jul. 7029 Jun. 67 - 25 Oct. 6714 May 72 - 31 Jan. 7329 Aug. 68 - 25 Nov. 7011 Aug. 64 - 28 Mar. 7312 Dec. 71 - 28 Jan. 736 Jun. 67 - 30 Jul. 7025 Nov. 70 - 16 Mar. 7321 Jun. 71 - 14 Feb. 737 Jul. 68 - 19 Aug. 719 Sep. 71 - 4 Nov. 7116 Dec. 71 - 1 Jan. 7220 Sep. 65 - 26 Dec. 708 Feb. 71 - 10 Mar. 7114 Jun. 71 - 10 Jul . 7124 Sep. 71 - 29 Mar. 73
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